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Table 1 Midkine expression is increased in the late stage prostate cancers. Normal and prostate cancer tissue microarray slides were immunohistochemically stained for midkine, using rabbit anti-midkine antibodies and ABC elite kit with DAB substrate, and counterstained by hematoxylin. The grading was assigned to each tissue core by a consensus review of two pathologists.

From: Midkine is a NF-κB-inducible gene that supports prostate cancer cell survival

   median (range)   - + ++  
Tissue No. Gleason score P Midkine stain P
Normal 18    17 1 0 §
Early stage cancer 40 6 (5 – 7) * 37 3 0
Late stage cancer 71 9 (8–10)   41 24 6
  1. "-" indicates ≤ 20% of epithelial cells were immunopositive;
  2. "+" indicates 20–50% of epithelial cells were immunopositive;
  3. "++" indicates ≥ 50% of epithelial cells were immunopositive.
  4. * P < 0.001, Gleason scores, early stage cancer v.s. late stage cancer.
  5. § P > 0.05, normal v.s. early stage cancer.
  6. † P < 0.001, early stage cancer v.s. late stage cancer.
  7. ‡ P < 0.001, normal v.s. late stage cancer.