Network diagrams for HIV1, host protein interactions. (A) The scheme for identifying HHP. Rectangular blocks represent ELMs and ellipses represent their CDs. (B) An HIV-1 protein (yellow) alters the human PPI network by creating a new path between proteins (blue). (C) An HIV-1 protein breaks a path between two human proteins (blue) by competing for binding [3–5]. (D) Interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins, as predicted by HHP and HHE using HPRD. Nodes are proteins and edges represent a protein-protein interaction. Yellow nodes represent HIV-1 proteins. Purple nodes represent the overlap between HHP and HHE. Blue and red nodes represent proteins specific to HHP and HHE, respectively, while green nodes are not involved in infection.