The impact of diurnal rhythm on global gene expression changes in all subjects. This heatmap illustrates that more than 5,000 genes were significantly associated with diurnal rhythm in the human adipose tissue over multiple days and subjects, irrespective of treatment arm. PER1 mRNA levels decreased and cytokine mRNA levels increased from the morning to the evening (red block arrows depict levels schematically). The y-axis lists the subjects ordered by time of biopsy and the x-axis lists diurnally regulated genes clustered hierarchically with the agglomerative clustering algorithm. The heatmap color scale is in log10, arranged from magenta (upregulated) to cyan (downregulated).