Genes from lymphocytes of ALS patients contributing to the perturbation of the KEGG ALS pathway per SAFE analysis. The KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) ALS pathway map relates to motor neuron degeneration in the context of a microenvironment represented by glial cells and can be found online at http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa05014.html. There are 54 unique gene entries (including CASP12 pseudogene) defined by ENTREZ identities. There are 36 protein entities represented on the map that are not all designated by official HUGO gene symbols. Red dashed areas represent subpathway modules affected by differentially expressed genes. Up or down-regulations determined following SAFE for DS7000 are shown by (↑) or (↓), unchanged is shown by (=) (fold changes in expression and HUGO gene symbols are reported in Table 6). HUGO aliases for protein entities represented on the map are as follows: ALS2 [ALS2], Apaf1 [APAF1], ASK1 [MAP3K5], Bad [BAD], Bax [BAX], Bcl2 [BCL2], Bcl-XL [BCL2L1], Bid [BID], CaN [CHP, CHP2, PPP3CA, PPP3CB, PPP3CC, PPP3R1, PPP3R2], CASP1 [CASP1], CASP3 [CASP3], CASP9 [CASP9], CASP12 [CASP12], CAT [CAT], CCS [CCS], CytC [CYCS], Daxx [DAXX], Derlin-1 [DERL1], EAAT2 [SLC1A2], GPX1 [GPX1], GluR [GRIA1, GRIA2, GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, GRIN2C, GRIN2D], MKK3 [MAP2K3], MKK6 [MAP2K6], p38 [MAPK11, MAPK12, MAPK13, MAPK14], NEFH [NEFH], NEFL [NEFL], NEFM [NEFM], NOS1 [NOS1], p53 [TP53], PRPH [PRPH, PRPH2], Rab5 [RAB5A], Rac1 [RAC1], SOD1 [SOD1], TNF-α [TNF], TNFR [TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF1B], and Tom [TOMM40, TOMM40L].