for each miRNA allele. (A) Boxplots of pairwise FST between African populations (green), between non-African populations (red), and between African and non-African populations (blue) are grouped hierarchically by major geographic region: Europe-Asia, Africa-Europe, Africa-Asia, and between African and non-African samples (grey). Black circles are outliers above 1.5 times the interquartile range. The red circles and the black solid lines are the mean and median of the distributions, respectively. (B) Zoom in of boxplots in A showing the median (black lines) and average FST of each pairwise group (red circles). (C) Pairwise FST for all miRNA variants between African (n = 32) and non-African (n = 25) samples. Population differentiated miRNAs (PD-miRNAs) contain variants above the 95th percentile (FST > 0.186) shown as a solid blue line. Highly population differentiated miRNAs (HPD-miRNAs) contain variants above the 99th percentile (FST > 0.366) shown as a dotted red line and are annotated with miRNA affiliation and rs numbers.