Disease network analysis. (A) The number of miRNA disease associations plotted against the pairwise FST between Africans and non-Africans for each miRNA allele. The 99th percentile (FST > 0.366) is shown with a dotted red line and the 95th percentile (FST > 0.186) is shown with a solid blue line. (B) Table of FST values for the 7 PD-miRNAs associated with human diseases and containing alleles with FST > 95th percentile and p < 0.05. MRNA targets were obtained using 45 public deep sequencing and microarray datasets (See Methods) (C) Disease network graph depicting the interactions between the 7 PD-miRNA (shown in black) and human disease, where up-regulation is shown in red, down-regulation (blue), unknown regulation (grey), and miRNA with reports of both up and down regulation in the same disease state shown in green. Labels are scaled by number of disease associations where miRNA or diseases with larger numbers of connecting lines are indicated by larger dot sizes within the network. (D) Population allele frequency differentiation of the breast, lung, gastric and esophageal cancer associated T-allele at SNP rs11614913 within miRNA hsa-mir-196a-2. African populations have decreased frequency of the T allele (green) as compared to non-African populations in blue (p < 0.001).