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Table 2 Treatments and diagnostics of some selected personalized (genomic) medicine drugs*

From: The role of epigenetics in personalized medicine: challenges and opportunities

Sr. No. Treatment Genetic test/biomarker Description
1 Mivacurium Cholinesterase gene Used for anesthesia adjunct, metabolized by plasma cholinesterase
2 Divalproex ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC) Used in bipolar disorder, in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCD); OTC
3 Trastuzumab, Lapatinib Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)/neu receptor Patients with metastatic breast cancer
4 Warfarin Cytochrome P450 (CYP2C9) Used in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), patients with CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9* 3 alleles
5 Warfarin VKORC1 Used in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), single nucleotide polymorphism in VKORC1 gene
6 Atorvastatin LDLR Used in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and heterozygous
7 Irinotecan UGTIA1 Used in colon cancer, homozygous condition for UGTIA1*28
8 Cetuximab, Panitumumab EGFR expression Used in colon cancer
9 Carbamazepine HLA-B*1502 Used in epilepsy and bipolar disorder
10 Abacavir HLA-B*5701 Used in human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV)
11 Mercaptopurine, thioguanine, azathioprine Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) test Used in leukemia
12 Chloroquine Glucose 6-dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) test Used in malaria
13 Capecitabine Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity test Used in multiple cancers
14 5-FU Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity test Used in skin cancer
15 Trastuzumab, Lapatinib Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)/neu receptor Used in stomach cancer
16 Imatinib Platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) gene Used in myelodysplastic syndrome
17 Lenalidomide 5q deletion Used in myelodysplastic syndrome
18 Celecoxib CYP2C9 Used in pain, patients suspected to be P450 2C9 poor metabolizers
  1. * This list and further details relating to these drugs can be found at the FDA's website (