DNA damage_Brca1 as a transcription regulator. It is the third highest scoring map (i.e., the map with the third lowest p-value). Activation of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) by DNA damage occurs via activating the ataxia telangiectasia mutated serine/threonine protein kinase (ATM) or serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein kinase). These protein kinases can either directly or indirectly phosphorylate BRCA1 (by cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2)). BRCA1 acts a significant role in the DNA repair process by expediting cellular response upon DNA repair. There are numerous DNA repair pathways (see map 427 Role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair). We know that DNA repair is highly related to various cancers.