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Fig. 6 | BMC Medical Genomics

Fig. 6

From: Acute appendicitis: transcript profiling of blood identifies promising biomarkers and potential underlying processes

Fig. 6

Model of appendicitis biomarker pathophysiology. It is believed that compacted fecal bodies, termed fecaliths, may occlude the outflow tract of the appendix, causing inflammatory conditions that are conducive to infection in the appendix. Microbiome analysis of inflamed appendices typically indicates a predominance of biofilm-forming bacteria, such as Fusobacteria. The biofilm protects the bacteria from antibiotics, and from direct immune attack, but soluble factors produced by the bacteria, such as LPS (endotoxins) and butyrate, or cellular factors such as hypoxia and CXCL8, can diffuse into adjacent lymphatic and circulatory beds to activate neutrophils. The primed neutrophils respond with elevated transcript levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), interleukin-8 receptor beta (CXCR2/IL8Rß) and related biomarkers of local infection. Background images of appendix and neutrophil courtesy of Blausen.com staff, Wikiversity Journal of Medicine

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