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Table 3 Major milestones in the development of PM adoption in Singapore

From: Current landscape of personalized medicine adoption and implementation in Southeast Asia

Year Organisation/ Initiative Funder/Collaboration Aim
2000 GISi A*STAR To use genomic sciences to achieve improvements in human health and public prosperity
2013 POLARIS GIS, SingHealth To deliver better patient outcomes through research within SingHealth institutionsj
2014 SAPhIRE BMRC and the HSA, GIS, and the Translational Laboratory for Genetic Medicine To develop an active surveillance network for ADR monitoring and discovery of genomic biomarkers that are predictive of specific ADRs
2015 PRISM SingHealth and Duke-NUS Medical School To drive, promote and standardize the use of PM and Precision Health for improving patient care, focusing on diseases relevant to Asian populations
  1. Notes
  2. i National flagship program for the genomic sciences
  3. j This includes Singapore General Hospital, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore National Eye Centre, and NUS Health System
  4. Abbreviations
  5. A*STAR Agency for Science and Technology Research, ADR adverse drug reaction, BMRC Biomedical Research Council, GIS Genome Institute of Singapore, HSA Health Sciences Authority, NUS National University of Singapore, POLARIS Personalised OMIC Lattice for Advanced Research and Improving Stratification, PRISM SingHealth Duke-National University Singapore Institute of Precision Medicine, SAPhIRE Surveillance and Pharmacogenomics Initiative for Adverse Drug Reactions