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Table 4 Comparison of the financing and integration mechanisms of three most common PM programs in SEA

From: Current landscape of personalized medicine adoption and implementation in Southeast Asia

Indicators   Targeted oncology therapy and companion diagnostic Pharmacogenomics testing Newborn screening
Trastuzumab HLA-B*15:02 Congenital hypothyroidism
Availability as routine practice Yes Indonesia
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
Singapore (nationwide)
Thailand (major hospitals)
Indonesia (10 provinces in 2017)
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
No Malaysia (special request)
Indonesia (research)
Stakeholder that initiated the PM program Pharmaceutical company Indonesia
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
Clinicians Singapore
Thailand
Indonesia
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
Financing mechanism Covered in national health program Indonesia (HER2 testing as OOP expenses)
Malaysia
Thailand
Thailand (Cap at THB1000) Indonesia (Limited budget)
Malaysia
Thailand
Partial subsidy by the national health programs Singapore (under Medical Assistance Fund scheme) Singapore (Up to 75% subsidy) Singapore (60% subsidy)
Monitoring framework Clinical outcome Malaysia (in future plan)
Thailand
Singapore
Integration in healthcare Change in local clinical practice guideline Indonesia
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
Thailand
Singapore
Indonesia
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
Availability of CDS in EHR NR Singapore
Thailand (some hospitals)
NA
Presence of healthcare information Physician Indonesia
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
Singapore
Thailand
Indonesia
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
Patient Singapore Thailand Indonesia
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
  1. Abbreviations
  2. CDS clinical decision support, EHR electronic health record, NA not applicable, NR not reported or insufficient information, OOP out-of-pocket, THB Thai Baht