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Table 4 Sensitivity analyses for robust estimation of the causal association between blood pressure and midlife cognitive function after removing outliers

From: Association of blood pressure with cognitive function at midlife: a Mendelian randomization study

  DSST RAVLT Stroop
SBP DBP PP SBP DBP PP SBP DBP PP
Weighted Median
Estimate (SD) −0.33
(0.22)
−0.86
(0.39)
− 0.31
(0.42)
−0.09
(0.05)
− 0.06
(0.09)
0.07
(0.09)
0.21
(0.13)
0.26
(0.23)
0.25
(0.23)
P-value 0.141 0.027 0.451 0.066 0.512 0.442 0.114 0.252 0.272
MR Egger Regression
Estimate (SD) −0.66
(0.33)
−0.88
(0.55)
−0.26
(0.42)
− 0.05
(0.07)
−0.13
(0.12)
0.04
(0.09)
−0.08
(0.19)
− 0.24
(0.30)
−0.06
(0.24)
P-value 0.048 0.111 0.526 0.483 0.269 0.643 0.656 0.437 0.272
ConMix
Estimate −0.48 −0.79 −0.65 − 0.07 −0.06 − 0.07 0.2 0.25 0.28
95% CI (−0.80, − 0.15) (−1.36, − 0.24) (−1.14, −.17) (−0.13, 0.00) (− 0.19, 0.07) (− 0.17, 0.02) (0.02, 0.37) (− 0.13, 0.57) (0.00, 0.55)
I2 statistic
P-value 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.96
MRPRESSO
P-value 0.97 0.94 0.96 0.95 0.90 0.89 0.93 0.92 0.96
Cochran Statistic
Q Statistics 71.01 97.24 71.33 70.16 75.22 74.98 71.65 74.18 67.53
P-value 0.97 0.47 0.96 0.95 0.88 0.90 0.95 0.93 0.96
Egger Intercept Test
Estimate (SD) 0.09
(0.14)
0.04
(0.14)
−0.14
(0.12)
−0.01
(0.03)
0.02
(0.03)
−0.04
(0.02)
0.16
(0.08)
0.14
(0.08)
0.12
(0.07)
P-value 0.553 0.805 0.222 0.766 0.444 0.105 0.057 0.073 0.082
nSNPS 96 93 94 92 92 93 94 94 91
  1. Abbreviations: MR Mendelian randomization, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, PP Pulse Pressure, DSST Digit Symbol Substitution Test, RAVLT Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Stroop The Stroop Interference test, MRPRESSO Mendelian Randomization Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier, conMIX Contamination mixture, SD Standard deviation, CI Confidence Interval