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Table 1 Description of clinically validated GOALS surveys

From: The Genomics of Opioid Addiction Longitudinal Study (GOALS): study design for a prospective evaluation of genetic and non-genetic factors for development of and recovery from opioid use disorder

Measure Clinical Utility
Patient Baseline Perception Survey A self-report survey authored by the research team, designed to gauge how much participants believe genetic and non-genetic (e.g. mental illness, traumatic events, age of first use, access/exposure to substances of abuse) factors contributed to their development of OUD.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) Scale Baseline A self-report scale designed to detect symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD) as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition; DSM-IV) and their severity. Increased scores on the GAD-7 are strongly associated with a variety of negative symptoms and behavioral outcomes, some of which have been empirically linked to specific patterns of substance use [34].
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) Baseline A self-report instrument that evaluates the presence and severity of depression symptoms as defined by the nine DSM-IV criteria used to screen for depressive disorders. In a substance-using population, higher PHQ-9 scores specifically indicate depression-proneness that may motivate this population to use substances that help regulate or suppress negative affect [35].
Opioid Risk Tool (ORT) A brief self-report tool designed to estimate the likelihood of misusing prescription opioids with high specificity and sensitivity. Risk is assessed based on the presence/absence of five elements of an individual’s life: family history of substance abuse, personal history of substance abuse, age, history of preadolescent sexual abuse, and psychological diseases [36].
Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Questionnaire A self-report measure designed to evaluate one’s history of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as abuse, neglect, lack of social support, witnessing abuse, or dysfunctional family dynamics. ACE scores are positively correlated with the likelihood of overdose [37].
Addiction Severity Index (ASI) Standard tool used for substance use evaluation around the state of New Jersey with interview-style administration. This tool captures details from seven areas of the individual’s life: general information, medical history, employment/support status, alcohol/drug history, legal history, family/social relationships, and psychiatric evaluation [38].