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Fig. 1 | BMC Medical Genomics

Fig. 1

From: Genetically determined tobacco and alcohol use and risk of atrial fibrillation

Fig. 1

Mendelian randomization association of smoking initiation, age at initiation of regular smoking, cigarettes per day and smoking cessation on atrial fibrillation using genetic instrument variables. Odds ratios are scaled to per one-unit increase in genetically predicted smoking initiation (about 10–12% increase in the probability of being a regular smoker), age at initiation of regular smoking (about additional 0.31–0.50 years), cigarettes per day (about 2–3 additional cigarettes daily) and smoking cessation (about 3–5% increase in the probability of being a current smoker). *Adjusted for alcohol drinking. No outlier detected. MR-PRESSO instrumental variable outlier detected: rs3025327. CI, confidence interval; IVW, the inverse-variance weighted method; MR, Mendelian randomization; MR-RAPS, MR-robust adjusted profile scores; MR-PRESSO, MR-pleiotropy residual sum and outlier; MVMR, multivariable Mendelian randomization; OR, odds ratio

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