Skip to main content

Table 3 Study participant characteristics between tertile all type fats with anthropometric indices, fat distribution, and biochemical variables

From: The interactions between dietary fats intake and Caveolin 1 rs 3807992 polymorphism with fat distribution in overweight and obese women: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics SFA (g) p value p value* TFA (g) p value p value*
T1 (n = 70) T2 (n = 74) T3 (n = 77) T1 (n = 110) T2 (n = 37) T3 (n = 74)
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Age (year) 37.65 10.58 35.50 8.13 33.77a 9.61 0.04 0.29 35.24 10.22 35.67 8.95 36.04 8.94 0.85 0.66
Weight (kg) 78.74 11.88 78.39 10.98 81.64 10.73 0.16 0.33 80.44 11.20 82.77 12.33 76.91b 10.28 0.02 0.40
Height (cm) 160.87 6.63 160.97 5.91 161.88 5.38 0.52 0.73 161.33 5.83 161.85 6.49 160.87b 5.95 0.71 0.02
physical activity (METh/wk) 1289.06 1659.24 883.52 844.43 887.97 780.69 0.22 0.02 937.07 939.23 931.96 959.04 1047.31 1392.65 0.92 0.93
BMI (kg/\({m}^{2}\)) 30.37 3.94 30.51 3.72 31.36 4.07 0.25 0.17 31.01 3.91 31.86 4.26 29.87b 3.62 0.03 0.66
FM (kg) 33.34 8.33 33.52 8.53 36.35 9.21 0.06 0.30 34.97 8.85 37.28 9.30 32.27b 7.97 0.01 0.70
body fat (%) 42.18 5.19 41.50 5.03 43.21 5.76 0.14 0.30 42.62 5.46 43.43 5.68 41.29 4.95 0.09 0.93
FMI (kg/m) 12.92 3.13 13.91 3.54 13.92 3.31 0.12 0.43 13.51 3.32 14.21 3.68 12.50b 2.98 0.02 0.62
Arm circumference (cm) 33.29 2.73 34.68 3.36 34.31 3.65 0.12 0.24 34.31 3.42 35.60 4.02 33.37 2.26 0.02 0.98
Fat distribution                 
WC (cm) 97.54 9.47 97.67 9.83 100.17 9.64 0.17 0.30 99.37 10.01 101.10 10.88 95.91a,b 7.98 0.01 0.58
HC (cm) 102.54 13.53 105.51 6.29 106.95 a 6.71 0.01 0.08 106.04 6.37 104.76 18.96 103.78 5.53 0.28 0.32
NC (cm) 36.22 2.24 37.02 2.40 39.03 14.92 0.34 0.14 38.36 12.61 37.00 2.54 36.55 2.49 0.09 0.12
WHtR (cm) 0.60 0.05 0.60 0.05 0.61 0.05 0.36 0.84 0.61 0.05 0.62 0.06 0.59a,b 0.04 0.02 0.17
WHR (cm) 2.23 10.88 0.92 0.05 0.93 0.05 0.33 0.69 0.93 0.05 3.39 14.97 0.92 0.04 0.08 0.30
Visceral fat level (cm2) 15.71 3.43 15.32 3.27 16.45 3.19 0.10 0.46 16.18 3.36 16.62 3.26 14.95a,b 3.12 0.01 0.92
Right arm fat (kg) 2.54 0.99 2.94 1.33 2.92 1.18 0.23 0.26 2.93 1.31 3.33 1.45 2.47b 0.76 0.01 0.63
Right arm fat (%) 271.76 104.99 310.56 132.32 308.53 121.38 0.26 0.33 30.55 133.45 34.07 147.86 26.30b 78.15 0.02 0.85
Left arm fat (kg) 2.58 0.98 2.96 1.32 2.95 1.19 0.25 0.27 2.95 1.31 3.35 1.44 2.50b 0.76 0.01 0.42
Left arm fat (%) 274.91 105.78 313.11 131.99 312.35 122.54 0.27 0.40 31.12 134.03 34.01 148.78 26.36b 78.14 0.02 0.74
Trunk fat (kg) 15.13 3.40 16.52 3.97 16.44 3.52 0.15 0.44 16.32 3.97 17.60 4.14 15.17b 2.81 0.03 0.90
Trunk fat (%) 288.60 65.37 312.54 69.75 309.09 65.56 0.21 0.53 30.81 71.64 32.85 76.62 28.70 53.98 0.08 0.77
Right leg fat (kg) 4.80 1.19 5.15 1.41 5.26 1.33 0.26 0.35 5.20 1.40 5.72 1.58 4.68b 0.94 0.007 0.58
Right leg fat (%) 201.53 49.95 214.67 56.31 218.57 55.84 0.33 0.44 21.88 56.81 23.43 68.33 19.64b 39.25 0.01 0.66
Left leg fat (kg) 4.77 1.16 5.12 1.39 5.23 1.30 0.25 0.31 5.15 1.37 5.67 1.56 4.66b 0.94 0.008 0.58
Left leg fat (%) 200.26 49.42 213.17 55.62 217.08 54.80 0.33 0.42 21.15 55.79 23.82 67.93 19.69b 38.82 0.01 0.68
Biochemical parameters                 
FBS (mg/dl) 88.10 9.78 85.56 7.20 87.73 10.27 0.43 0.37 86.89 9.42 87.25 5.54 87.00 9.48 0.99 0.68
CHOL (mg/dl) 177.93 32.26 177.48 33.83 174.94 27.84 0.92 0.78 177.85 34.31 170.41 26.12 175.41 29.32 0.75 0.76
TG (mg/dl) 107.10 41.14 123.34 76.78 112.67 51.42 0.52 0.66 112.61 63.53 101.50 53.56 122.27 58.81 0.52 0.90
HDL-C (mg/dl) 47.00 10.38 48.21 9.80 46.32 7.99 0.67 0.78 48.38 10.39 47.83 7.42 45.81 8.58 0.41 0.94
LDL-C (mg/dl) 98.72 22.88 95.97 23.15 95.32 20.69 0.81 0.14 97.48 22.82 94.25 20.67 96.06 22.16 0.89 0.50
LDL/HDL 2.16 0.55 2.05 0.60 2.11 0.55 0.73 0.84 2.06 0.51 2.05 0.72 2.16 0.58 0.70 0.73
CHOL/HDL 3.88 0.79 3.74 0.90 3.86 0.79 0.73 0.27 3.76 0.77 3.69 1.07 3.93 0.83 0.52 0.91
Insulin (mIU/ml) 1.17 0.19 1.24 0.23 1.22 0.24 0.78 0.04 1.20 0.23 1.22 0.21 1.22 0.23 0.78 0.86
HOMA IR 3.03 1.18 3.02 0.87 3.04 1.28 0.99 0.98 2.94 1.07 2.80 1.13 3.19 1.12 0.44 0.55
Characteristics MUFA (g) p value p value* PUFA (g) p value p value*
T1 (n = 69) T2 (n = 68) T3 (n = 84) T1 (n = 73) T2 (n = 63) T3 (n = 85)
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Age (year) 32.27 10.73 34.73 8.37 34.88 9.39 0.20 0.32 36.94 10.59 35.55 8.97 34.43 9.01 0.26 0.52
Weight (kg) 78.98 12.36 77.28 9.71 82.13b 11.07 0.02 0.97 79.86 11.65 77.07 10.79 81.34b 10.99 0.07 0.60
Height (cm) 160.66 6.87 161.49 5.30 161.26 5.97 0.61 0.55 161.04 6.50 161.24 5.81 161.45 5.65 0.91 0.33
physical activity (METh/wk) 1146.95 1480.10 995.48 1096.42 878.16 758.12 0.56 0.28 814.27 817.43 1046.54 1579.41 1067.58 822.20 0.57 0.61
BMI (kg/\({m}^{2}\)) 30.71 4.10 29.60 3.32 31.76b 4.00 0.003 0.53 30.94 3.91 29.68 3.52 31.41b 4.04 0.02 0.61
FM (kg) 33.84 8.58 32.00 7.49 36.94a,b 9.35 0.002 0.70 34.58 8.51 32.26 8.45 35.96b 9.01 0.03 0.82
body fat (%) 42.42 4.99 40.93 5.10 43.34b 5.68 0.02 0.92 42.52 5.09 41.06 5.55 43.05b 5.36 0.07 0.56
FMI (kg/m) 13.19 3.19 12.30 2.82 14.16b 3.57 0.002 0.40 13.41 3.11 12.43 3.10 13.83b 3.53 0.03 0.63
Arm circumference (cm) 33.70 2.73 33.33 2.58 35.17 3.74 0.01 0.33 33.98 2.67 33.44 3.14 34.88b 3.50 0.07 0.56
Fat distribution                 
WC (cm) 97.81 9.62 96.27 9.18 100.91b 9.73 0.01 0.65 99.35 9.37 95.29a 9.19 100.93b 9.58 0.007 0.46
HC (cm) 103.09 13.86 104.14 5.86 107.49b 6.49 0.01 0.59 103.66 13.61 104.24 6.01 106.90a 6.57 0.07 0.14
NC (cm) 36.69 2.72 36.26 2.49 38.83 13.54 0.35 0.45 36.70 2.44 36.45 2.59 38.98 13.53 0.28 0.71
WHtR (cm) 0.60 0.05 0.59 0.05 0.62 0.06 0.007 0.32 0.61 0.05 0.59a 0.05 0.62b 0.06 0.006 0.70
WHR (cm) 2.25 10.96 0.92 0.05 0.94 0.05 0.33 0.66 2.19 10.65 0.91 0.05 0.93 0.05 0.35 0.32
Visceral fat level (cm2) 15.85 3.35 15.01 3.39 16.51b 3.10 0.02 0.75 16.28 3.15 14.82a 3.63 16.22b 3.08 0.01 0.80
Right arm fat (kg) 2.78 1.11 2.49 0.93 3.12b 1.37 0.03 0.64 2.86 1.06 2.57 1.19 3.01 1.26 0.17 0.75
Right arm fat (%) 293.69 113.02 265.29 98.35 329.93b 138.01 0.02 0.47 300.43 109.30 272.61 117.79 319.57 138.01130.52 0.15 0.59
Left arm fat (kg) 2.81 1.11 2.51 0.92 3.16b 1.37 0.02 0.66 2.89 1.08 2.60 1.18 3.04 1.26 0.18 0.80
Left arm fat (%) 297.01 114.18 267.80 98.43 333.45b 138.05 0.02 0.44 303.41 111.22 275.92 117.57 322.67 130.67 0.16 0.62
Trunk fat (kg) 15.87 3.65 15.08 3.12 17.09b 3.95 0.02 0.53 16.30 3.41 15.09 3.82 16.79b 3.64 0.06 0.55
Trunk fat (%) 300.46 65.85 286.47 58.41 322.20b 71.92 0.02 0.31 306.91 62.32 286.70 67.26 317.84b 68.63 0.06 0.62
Right leg fat (kg) 5.08 1.29 4.71 1.21 5.40b 1.38 0.03 0.84 5.10 1.24 4.85 1.37 5.28 1.34 0.27 0.86
Right leg fat (%) 211.79 51.20 197.02 51.94 224.96b 56.43 0.03 0.57 211.23 50.39 203.12 55.80 220.04 55.70 0.28 0.61
Left leg fat (kg) 5.05 1.26 4.68 1.20 5.37b 1.35 0.03 0.82 5.06 1.22 4.82 1.35 5.24 1.31 0.27 0.86
Left leg fat (%) 210.26 50.58 195.80 51.52 223.42b 55.32 0.03 0.56 209.75 49.77 201.95 55.33 218.83 54.62 0.29 0.60
Biochemical parameters                 
FBS (mg/dl) 86.64 9.41 86.50 7.64 87.66 9.95 0.83 0.96 85.93 8.17 86.94 8.79 87.77 9.90 0.70 0.96
CHOL (mg/dl) 176.48 33.27 173.52 32.94 177.74 32.54 0.84 0.57 176.55 33.15 175.74 28.99 175.80 28.71 0.99 0.17
TG (mg/dl) 113.80 55.10 124.24 78.62 108.76 44.66 0.54 0.74 109.82 64.98 121.97 78.62 113.50 46.72 0.70 0.43
HDL-C (mg/dl) 47.32 10.59 47.14 9.82 47.30 8.09 0.99 0.93 47.17 10.28 46.97 9.63 47.57 8.64 0.96 0.40
LDL-C (mg/dl) 96.12 22.69 95.14 22.84 98.05 21.53 0.85 0.47 96.65 22.37 95.14 20.31 97.65 23.90 0.88 0.54
LDL/HDL 2.10 0.58 2.07 0.56 2.13 0.57 0.92 0.94 2.11 0.58 2.07 0.48 2.12 0.64 0.91 0.57
CHOL/HDL 3.83 0.82 3.78 0.89 3.84 0.80 0.94 0.17 3.85 0.87 3.82 0.71 3.80a 0.91 0.97 0.05
Insulin (mIU/ml) 1.18 0.21 1.21 0.20 1.25 0.27 0.20 0.27 1.20 0.20 1.22 0.22 1.21 0.25 0.82 0.99
HOMA IR 3.19 1.14 2.84 1.18 3.06 0.98 0.45 0.78 3.05 1.10 3.02 1.25 3.03 0.97 0.99 0.84
  1. All data are presented as mean and SD
  2. p value obtained from the ANOVA test
  3. p value < 0.05 was considered significant. P-value < 0.05 were bolded
  4. p value * obtained from ANCOVA test adjusted for age, BMI, energy intake, and physical activity
  5. SFA saturated fatty acid, TFA trans-fatty acid, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid, BMI body mass index, FM fat mass, FMI fat mass index, WC waist circumference, HC hip circumference, NC: neck circumference, WHtR: weight to height ratio, WHR weight to hip ratio, FBS fasting blood sugar, CHOL cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HOMA IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance
  6. aSignificant compared to tertile 1
  7. bSignificance compared to tertile 2