Skip to main content

Table 4 Study participant characteristics between tertiles of all type of fats with anthropometric indices, fat distribution and biochemical variables

From: The interactions between dietary fats intake and Caveolin 1 rs 3807992 polymorphism with fat distribution in overweight and obese women: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics linoleic acid (g) p value p value* ALA (g)
T1 (n = 73) T2 (n = 64) T3 (n = 84) T1 (n = 81) T2 (n = 66)
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Age (year) 37.01 10.62 35.73 8.97 34.22 8.95 0.18 0.40 36.88 9.99 35.59 9.12
Weight (kg) 79.87 11.65 77.07 10.65 81.39 11.09 0.07 0.36 80.01 11.73 78.76 10.18
Height (cm) 161.33 6.58 160.82 5.67 161.52 5.67 0.76 0.24 161.41 6.76 161.51 4.97
physical activity(METh/wk) 885.95 845.60 934.65 1427.46 1108.98 1000.2 0.63 0.69 721.67 735.89 1031.72 1267.96
BMI (kg/\({\mathrm{m}}^{2}\)) 30.84 3.95 29.84 3.59 31.40 b 4.04 0.05 0.59 30.74 3.72 30.37 3.75
FM (kg) 34.41 8.61 32.50 8.29 35.97 b 9.09 0.05 0.80 34.26 8.45 33.42 7.76
body fat (%) 42.30 5.28 41.39 5.32 43.02 5.43 0.19 0.61 42.12 5.12 41.76 5.26
FMI (kg/m) 13.30 3.18 12.58 3.06 13.81 3.54 0.08 0.77 13.21 3.16 12.86 2.91
Arm circumference (cm) 33.91 2.66 33.62 3.27 34.78 3.47 0.33 0.53 33.86 3.09 33.71 2.56
Fat distribution             
WC (cm) 99.14 9.49 95.67 9.05 100.10 b 9.96 0.01 0.34 99.03 9.60 97.87 9.37
HC (cm) 103.64 13.60 104.29 6.06 106.91 6.55 0.07 0.39 104.01 13.09 105.12 6.00
NC (cm) 36.60 2.62 36.37 2.48 38.95 3.53 0.29 0.55 36.83 2.32 36.41 2.35
WHR (cm) 2.18 10.65 0.91 0.05 0.93 0.05 0.35 0.33 2.06 10.11 0.92 0.05
WHtR (cm) 0.61 0.05 0.59 0.05 0.62 0.06 0.02 0.78 0.61 0.05 0.60 0.05
Visceral fat level (cm2) 16.13 3.28 15.03 3.46 16.21 b 3.16 0.06 0.75 15.92 3.19 15.66 3.29
Right arm fat (kg) 2.82 1.07 2.61 1.19 3.00 1.27 0.27 0.77 2.67 1.03 2.70 0.99
Right arm fat (%) 295.56 111.22 278.55 118.36 317.63 130.37 0.27 0.75 284.34 110.27 285.12 99.95
Left arm fat (kg) 2.85 1.09 2.64 1.18 3.03 1.27 0.27 0.83 2.70 1.04 2.72 0.97
Left arm fat (%) 298.57 112.94 282.04 118.55 320.57 130.32 0.29 0.78 287.55 111.78 287.03 98.85
Trunk fat (kg) 16.13 3.46 15.30 3.81 16.72 3.69 0.16 0.47 15.67 3.48 15.81 3.23
Trunk fat (%) 303.02 64.51 292.13 67.16 315.78 68.86 0.21 0.82 297.99 66.89 297.84 59.42
Right leg fat (kg) 5.08 1.25 4.88 1.37 5.27 1.34 0.35 0.94 4.89 1.23 5.01 1.19
Right leg fat (%) 209.79 51.05 205.40 56.25 219.47 55.42 0.41 0.79 204.69 52.56 207.54 48.12
Left leg fat (kg) 5.04 1.23 4.85 1.35 5.23 1.32 0.36 0.95 4.85 1.21 4.98 1.18
Left leg fat (%) 208.36 50.43 204.11 55.64 217.91 54.44 0.42 0.79 203.21 52.10 206.40 47.65
Biochemical parameters             
FBS (mg/dl) 86.31 8.23 87.70 9.93 86.85 8.93 0.82 0.69 88.70 8.46 86.19 8.30
CHOL (mg/dl) 175.24 32.61 178.52 28.70 174.41 32.92 0.84 0.15 178.23 32.12 175.41 28.48
TG (mg/dl) 110.06 65.02 119.85 63.15 115.29 55.64 0.81 0.69 119.11 67.12 124.93 65.92
HDL-C (mg/dl) 47.24 10.28 47.50 9.33 47.07 8.95 0.98 0.77 47.58 10.64 45.93 7.27
LDL-C (mg/dl) 94.96 21.68 97.20 19.62 97.03 24.73 0.90 0.99 99.02 21.88 97.70 21.98
LDL/HDL 2.07 0.57 2.09 0.48 2.13 0.64 0.92 0.74 2.15 0.57 2.16 0.57
CHOL/HDL 3.81 0.86 3.83 0.71 3.81 a 0.92 0.99 0.06 3.87 0.76 3.72 0.83
Insulin (mIU/ml) 1.20 0.20 1.21 0.21 1.23 0.26 0.69 0.64 1.21 0.20 1.20 0.23
HOMA IR 3.06 1.09 3.10 1.29 2.95 0.94 0.84 0.58 3.26 1.14 2.90 1.17
Characteristics ALA (g) p value p value* EPA and DHA (g) p value p value*
T3 (n = 74) T1 (n = 78) T2 (n = 86) T3 (n = 57)
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Age (year) 34.14 9.40 0.20 0.60 36.05 9.53 36.30 10.31 33.85 8.32 0.28 0.94
Weight (kg) 79.97 11.71 0.76 0.99 78.76 10.75 79.56 11.36 80.89 11.79 0.56 0.43
Height (cm) 160.85 5.91 0.75 0.39 160.48 5.50 161.88 6.43 161.37 5.84 0.32 0.99
physical activity(METh/wk) 1197.83 1229.15 0.14 0.09 1016.05 1111.52 824.10 706.16 1157.59 1431.72 0.41 0.44
BMI (kg/\({\mathrm{m}}^{2}\)) 31.14 4.29 0.51 0.60 30.73 3.88 30.46 3.75 31.24 4.22 0.51 0.63
FM (kg) 35.59 9.91 0.33 0.34 34.52 8.26 34.06 9.10 34.95 9.12 0.83 0.95
body fat (%) 43.01 5.72 0.36 0.18 42.79 5.04 41.83 5.56 42.38 5.53 0.51 0.66
FMI (kg/m) 13.75 3.77 0.40 0.22 13.42 3.18 13.05 3.34 13.47 3.48 0.69 0.93
Arm circumference (cm) 34.78 3.68 0.22 0.23 33.86 3.07 34.21 3.39 34.42 3.18 0.74 0.51
Fat distribution             
WC (cm) 98.48 10.16 0.77 0.55 98.16 9.61 98.77 10.06 98.55 9.35 0.92 0.40
HC (cm) 106.21 6.85 0.36 0.44 105.29 6.10 105.36 6.59 104.33 15.30 0.79 0.67
NC (cm) 38.87 14.16 0.37 0.39 38.86 16.10 36.92 2.51 36.90 2.22 0.52 0.61
WHR (cm) 0.92 0.06 0.41 0.35 0.93 0.06 0.93 0.05 2.52 12.06 0.24 0.29
WHtR (cm) 0.61 0.06 0.66 0.48 0.61 0.05 0.61 0.05 0.61 0.05 0.98 0.78
Visceral fat level (cm2) 15.91 3.50 0.87 0.25 16.05 3.05 15.62 3.51 15.89 3.40 0.71 0.94
Right arm fat (kg) 3.05 1.43 0.21 0.33 2.74 1.20 2.80 1.22 2.95 1.17 0.72 0.96
Right arm fat (%) 322.01 142.39 0.21 0.28 291.96 117.54 294.62 123.06 312.69 126.42 0.70 0.98
Left arm fat (kg) 3.08 1.43 0.20 0.29 2.76 1.20 2.83 1.22 2.97 1.19 0.72 0.98
Left arm fat (%) 325.91 142.59 0.19 0.25 294.81 116.90 297.64 123.26 316.27 128.08 0.68 0.95
Trunk fat (kg) 16.70 4.13 0.33 0.29 15.70 3.46 16.10 3.91 16.51 3.65 0.62 0.87
Trunk fat (%) 315.54 72.66 0.33 0.18 299.59 56.26 302.46 71.41 219.25 58.90 0.63 0.77
Right leg fat (kg) 5.33 1.48 0.23 0.34 5.09 1.28 4.98 1.34 5.26 1.37 0.59 0.80
Right leg fat (%) 222.51 59.50 0.21 0.24 214.55 49.83 205.92 54.68 219.25 58.90 0.47 0.85
Left leg fat (kg) 5.30 1.45 0.21 0.35 5.07 1.25 4.94 1.32 5.22 1.34 0.57 0.77
Left leg fat (%) 220.93 58.30 0.21 0.23 213.18 48.85 204.49 54.26 217.76 57.80 0.46 0.84
Biochemical parameters             
FBS (mg/dl) 86.10 9.99 0.40 0.26 86.80 8.20 87.83 9.54 85.93 9.22 0.67 0.27
CHOL (mg/dl) 174.48 32.25 0.87 0.16 171.74 26.77 179.34 33.61 175.56 32.52 0.58 0.63
TG (mg/dl) 104.38 48.20 0.33 0.58 107.61 59.54 103.27 38.85 140.56 a, b 78.43 0.02 0.47
HDL-C (mg/dl) 48.02 9.78 0.63 0.32 46.61 10.11 49.04 9.74 45.36 7.72 0.23 0.99
LDL-C (mg/dl) 93.41 22.65 0.52 0.88 92.00 19.18 100.83 22.47 95.03 23.98 0.21 0.58
LDL/HDL 2.00 0.56 0.39 0.16 2.06 0.61 2.11 0.57 2.12 0.52 0.91 0.69
CHOL/HDL 3.82 0.83 0.67 0.03 3.83 0.94 3.74 0.82 3.92 0.74 0.64 0.74
Insulin (mIU/ml) 1.22 0.24 0.74 0.90 1.19 0.22 1.24 0.24 1.20 0.21 0.27 0.49
HOMA IR 2.92 0.98 0.34 0.25 2.92 0.96 3.00 1.10 3.19 \(1\).24 0.63 0.74
  1. All data are presented as mean and SD
  2. p value obtained from the ANOVA test
  3. p value * obtained from ANCOVA test adjusted for age, BMI, energy intake, and physical activity. P-value < 0.05 were bolded
  4. ALA alpha-linolenic acid, EPA-DHA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, BMI body mass index, FM fat mass, FMI fat mass index, WC waist circumference, HC hip circumference, NC neck circumference, WHR weight to hip ratio, WHtR weight to height ratio, FBS fasting blood sugar, CHOL cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HOMA IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance
  5. aSignificant compared to tertile 1
  6. bSignificance compared to tertile 2