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Table 3 The methylation status of six target promoter regions in VDR, CasR, CLDN14 when methylation defined in three subgroups of the unmethylated (methylation < 9%), methylated (9–29%), and highly/hypermethylated (> 29%)

From: The correlation between promoter hypermethylation of VDR, CLDN, and CasR genes and recurrent stone formation

Gene Recurrent stone formers (N = 30) Control (N = 30) P-value
VDRa Unmethylated 2 (6.7%) 12(42.9%) 0.006*
Methylated 16(53.3%) 9(32.1%)
Hypermethylated 12(40.0%) 7(25.0%)
VDRb Unmethylated 1(3.4%) 10(34.5%) 0.007*
Methylated 14(48.3%) 12(41.4%)
Hypermethylated 14(48.3%) 7(24.1%)
CLDNa Unmethylated 4(14.8%) 15(50.0%) .004*
Hypermethylated 10(37.0%) 11(36.7%)
Hypermethylated 13(48.1%) 4(13.3%)
CLDNb Unmethylated 4(14.8%) 13(43.3%)  < 0.001*
Methylated 6(22.2%) 13(43.3%)
Hypermethylated 17(63.0%) 4(13.3%)
CasRa unmethylated 2(7.1%) 6(20.0%)  < 0.001**
Methylated 11(39.3%) 23(76.7%)
Hypermethylated 15(53.6%) 1(3.3%)
CasRb Unmethylated 1(3.4%) 6(20.0%)  < 0.001**
Methylated 12(41.4%) 21(70.0%)
Hypermethylated 16(55.2%) 3(10.0%)
  1. *Less than 0.005
  2. **less than 0.001