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Table 1 Obesity- and/or insulin resistance-associated genes and their expression in the small intestine of C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.

From: The role of the small intestine in the development of dietary fat-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice

Gene name (symbol) Previous association with obesity and/or insulin resistance (ref.)   Transcriptional regulation in small intestine on a HF diet
Nuclear receptors & target genes    
ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, 1 (Abca1) -/- mice; IR ▲ [45] ↓ P, M, D
Farnesoid X-activated receptor (Fxr, Nr1h4) -/- mice; IR ▲ [46, 47] minimal regulation, but target genes:
↑ P, M; ↓ D
Liver X receptor (LXRα/β, Nr1h2/3) -/- mice; obesity & IR [48] minimal regulation, but target genes:
cholesterol metabolism ↓ P, M, D
fatty acid metabolism ↑ P, M
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (Pparα) -/- mice; obesity ▲, IR [28, 29] minimal regulation, but target genes:
↑ P, M, D
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ (Pparδ) -/- mice; IR ▲ [32] ↓, M
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (Pparγ) -/+ mice; IR
Agonists (TZDs) used as anti-diabetic agents
[49, 50] minimal regulation
Pparγ, coactivator 1α (Pgc1α) -/- mice; obesity ▲, IR [51] ↓ M
Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1) -/- mice; obesity & IR [33, 34] ↑ P, M, D
Sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 (Srebf1) -/- mice; obesity [35] ↑ P
Small heterodimer partner (Shp, Nr0b2) -/- mice; obesity & IR [36] ↑ P, M
Secreted (signaling) proteins    
Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) Tg mice; obesity , IR ▲
Suppression by gut microbiota promotes triglyceride storage
[6] ↑ P, M, D
Fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15) Injection of Fgf15; glucose tolerance ▲ [41] ↓ D
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (Glp1) High plasma levels; IR [12, 13] ↑ (slightly) M
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (Gip) High plasma levels; IR [13] ↑ (slightly) D
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (Igfbp3) Tg mice; IR ▲ [42] ↑ P, M
Interleukin 18 (Il18) -/- mice; obesity & IR ▲ [37] ↓ P, M
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif) High plasma levels; obesity & IR ▲ [39] ↑ M, D
  1. -/- mice: null mice, +/- mice: heterozygous mice, Tg mice: transgenic mice, IR: insulin resistance, P, M, D: proximal, middle, distal part of the small intestine, ▲: prone to, : resistant to, ↑: up-regulated expression, ↓: down-regulated expression. In bold: dietary-fat induced molecular changes in the small intestine that point in the same direction as data from previous null- and transgenic mouse studies regarding development of metabolic syndrome.