Pro-neural and neuroendocrine transcripts are over-expressed in metastatic human prostate cancer. (a) The transcription factors Ascl1 and Hes6 are increased in a small set of metastatic prostate cancers as well as the neuroendocrine markers neuron specific enolase (Nse) and dopa-decarboxylase (Ddc). Hes1 expression did not change whereas NeuroD1 was slightly increased in metastatic tissue. The AR expression in metastatic tissue was found to be subdivided in two groups. NeuroD1 and synaptotagmin4 (Syt4) were also found increased. (b) Pro-neural factors discriminate between primary carcinoma and metastasis in prostate cancer. Using clustering analysis, it was possible to discriminate between metastasis and primary tumours by the expression of the pro-neural/neuroendocrine markers Ascl1, Hes6, Ddc, and Nts in human prostate tissue.