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Table 3 Uniquely dysregulated genes in squamous cell carcinoma versus normal urothelium

From: Gene profiling suggests a common evolution of bladder cancer subtypes

Gene Fold change SCCa Function
KRT6B 289 High molecular weight cytokeratin; stratified epithelium differentiation
S100A7 242 Promotes migration and invasion of SCCa; reported in urine of bladder SCCa patients
KRT16 147 High molecular weight cytokeratin
PI3 140 Peptidase inhibitor 3/elafin; marker of abnormal squamous growth; induced by inflammation
DSG3 77.6 Desmosome-associated protein; upregulated in various forms of SCCa
SERPINB4 58.3 Member of human SCCa antigen locus; activated by STAT3; enhances survival of SCCa cells
CNFN 56.3 Cornifelin; squamous epithelial marker
KLK10 53.9 Serine protease; increased in oral and lung SCCa
SERPINB3 42.5 Member of human SCCa antigen locus; activated by STAT3; enhances survival of SCCa cells
FGFBP1 31.3 FGF carrier protein; promotes angiogenesis in SCCa from various sites
MMP1 31.0 Matrix metalloproteinase that degrades collagens; induced by EGF in bladder cancer patients
DSG1 29.6 Desmosome-associated protein; enhances loss of cell adhesion in SCCa from various sites
KRT5 25.8 High-molecular weight cytokeratin; expressed by squamous epithelium
DSC3 25.1 Desmosome-associated protein; marker of squamous differentiation; can inhibit EGFR pathway
S100A8 22.9 May predict metastatic potential of bladder cancer; increased in SCCa from various sites
LY6D 21.1 Affects interaction between SCCa cells and endothelial cells
CA2 19.3 Carbonic anhydrase II; Previously reported in bladder SCCa
MMP10 18.7 Matrix metalloproteinase; activated by EGF and STAT3; inhances SCCa invasion at other sites
PTHLH 15.5 Parathyroid hormone-like hormone; previously reported in bladder SCCa; may affect apoptosis
SCEL 15.1 Squamous epithelium marker
CALB1 12.9 Calbindin 1; calcium binding protein of the troponin C superfamily
PTPRZ1 11.9 Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase; involved in CNS development
LAMC2 8.95 Laminin, gamma2; Overexpressed in esophageal SCC
KIF14 6.58 Microtubule motor protein; reported in laryngeal carcinoma
JUP 6.31 Associated with both desmosomes and intermediate junctions
SCUBE2 -27.1 Secreted protein; putative tumor suppressor in breast cancer
HPGD -20.6 Metabolism of prostaglandins; downregulated in gastric cancer by COX2
HMGCS2 -15.6 HMG-CoA synthase family; enzyme involved in ketogenesis
CYP4B1 -15.0 Involved in drug metabolism and lipid synthesis; related to bladder cancer risk in one study
TGFBR3 -13.1 Encodes TGF-β receptor III; reduced expression in numerous cancers
UPK3A -10.9 Uroplakin 3A; urothelial marker; loss of expression associated with aggressive bladder cancer
AOC3 -10.1 Copper amine oxidase; aids in leukocyte adhesion and transmigration
FBLN1 -9.86 Secreted glycoprotein; may be involved in ECM remodeling; downregulated in gastric cancer
FOXA1 -9.82 Forkhead class of DNA binding proteins; loss occurs in aggressive bladder cancer
PPARG -9.27 Regulate gene transcription together with retinoid X receptors; may influence BCG response
GATA3 -8.97 Transcription factor; downregulated in bladder cancer
CCL15 -8.63 Chemotactic for T cells and monocytes;
TSPAN8 -7.96 Tetraspanin family; interacts with integrins; may regulate motility in various cancers
ADRA2A -7.75 Alpha-2-adrenergic receptor;
PDGFD -7.74 PDGF family; can regulate motility in many cancer types and chemotaxis
KRT20 -6.32 Low molecular weight cytokeratin; typically patchy expression in urothelial carcinoma
CYP1A1 -5.7 Hypermethylated in bladder cancer; polymorphisms related to bladder cancer risk
CYP1B1 -5.61 Polymorphisms associated with bladder cancer risk
UGT1A10 -5.28 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; involved in detoxification of carcinogens
UGT1A7 -5.28 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; polymorphisms associated with cancer risk
  1. Differentially expressed genes have an adjusted p value of <0.05.