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Table 4 Linear regression and generalized estimating equation models for effect of genetic risk estimate on change in perceived risk of cancer

From: The impact of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing on perceived risk of breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancer: findings from the PGen study

  Breast Prostate Colorectal Lungc
Change in perceived risk: baseline to 2Wa
 Elevated risk result: LS mean (95 % CI) 0.61 (0.42, 0.79) 0.77 (0.58, 0.95) 0.50 (0.41, 0.60) 0.62 (0.49, 0.75)
 Average risk result: LS mean (95 % CI) −0.20 (−0.27, −0.14) −0.21 (−0.31, −0.11) −0.05 (−0.10, 0.01) 0.18 (0.10, 0.27)
 LS mean difference (95 % CI) 0.81 (0.62, 1.00) 0.97 (0.76, 1.19) 0.55 (0.44, 0.66) 0.44 (0.31, 0.57)
p-valueDifference <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Change in perceived risk: baseline to 6Ma
 Elevated risk result: LS mean (95 % CI) 0.53 (0.32, 0.74) 0.51 (0.32, 0.69) 0.33 (0.24, 0.43) 0.58 (0.44, 0.72)
 Average risk result: LS mean (95 % CI) −0.15 (−0.22, −0.07) −0.14 (−0.24, −0.04) −0.04 (−0.09, 0.02) 0.22 (0.13, 0.31)
 LS mean difference (95 % CI) 0.68 (0.46, 0.90) 0.65 (0.43, 0.86) 0.37 (0.26, 0.48) 0.36 (0.22, 0.49)
p-valueDifference <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
GEE Model: ΔPRb
 Elevated risk result: β ± SE (p-value) 0.68 ± 0.29 (0.02) 1.06 ± 0.20 (<0.0001) 0.79 ± 0.11 (<0.0001) 0.59 ± 0.13 (<0.0001)
 Elevated risk result*survey: β ± SE (p-value) 0.06 ± 0.19 (0.76) −0.15 ± 0.11 (0.17) −0.20 ± 0.07 (0.0027) −0.11 ± 0.08 (0.17)
  1. 2 W 2-week follow-up, 6 M 6-month follow-up, LS least squares adjusted, CI confidence interval, SE standard error
  2. aAdjusted for baseline perceived risk, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and company
  3. bAdjusted for baseline perceived risk, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and company, with result*survey interaction term
  4. cMultivariate lung cancer analyses additionally adjusted for smoking status