Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of therapy targeting brachyury protein in cancer

From: Multiple malignant tumors in a patient with familial chordoma, a case report

Treatment Mechanism Disease model Stage Result Ref
Yeast-Based vaccine Immune stimulation metastatic or unresectable locally advanced malignant solid tumors Clinical phase I Induce T-cell response. No serious adverse effects. PR 10%; SD 80%; PD 10%. Currently ongoing phase II study (NCT02383498) [50]
DNA Nanoparticle-Mediated shRNA shRNA inhibit brachyury expression Chordoma Pre-clinical Induced apoptosis, upregulated the epithelial biomarker, E-cadherin, downregulated the mesenchymal biomarker, Snail and Slug, and suppressed cell growth [53]
Poxviral TRICOM-Based Vaccine Immune stimulation metastatic or unresectable locally advanced malignant solid tumors Clinical phase I Induce T-cell response. No serious adverse effects. SD 45%; PD 55% [51]
Afatinib Brachyury degradation Chordoma Pre-clinical Antitumor efficacy in U-CH1, SF8894, CF322, and CF365 chordoma tumor models in vivo. Currently ongoing phase II study in EGFR expressing chordoma (NCT03083678) and metastatic or unresectable chordoma (EUDRACT 2016-002766-31) [46]
THZ1 (CDK 7/12/13 inhibitors) Down-regulation of brachyury expression Chordoma Pre-clinical Can reduce tumor growth in vivo [47]
Modified Vaccinia Ankara Priming Vaccine Immune stimulation metastatic or unresectable locally advanced malignant solid tumors Clinical phase I Well tolerated and induces immune responses to brachyury. SD 60%; PD 40% [52]
H3K27 demethylase inhibitors Epigenetic silencing of TBXT Chordoma Pre-clinical Pharmacologic inhibition of H3K27-demethylases promotes chordoma cell death [54]