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Subtypes of primary colorectal tumors correlate with response to targeted treatment in colorectal cell lines
© Schlicker et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 19 September 2012
Accepted: 17 December 2012
Published: 31 December 2012
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous and biologically poorly understood disease. To tailor CRC treatment, it is essential to first model this heterogeneity by defining subtypes of patients with homogeneous biological and clinical characteristics and second match these subtypes to cell lines for which extensive pharmacological data is available, thus linking targeted therapies to patients most likely to respond to treatment.
We applied a new unsupervised, iterative approach to stratify CRC tumor samples into subtypes based on genome-wide mRNA expression data. By applying this stratification to several CRC cell line panels and integrating pharmacological response data, we generated hypotheses regarding the targeted treatment of different subtypes.
In agreement with earlier studies, the two dominant CRC subtypes are highly correlated with a gene expression signature of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). Notably, further dividing these two subtypes using iNMF (iterative Non-negative Matrix Factorization) revealed five subtypes that exhibit activation of specific signaling pathways, and show significant differences in clinical and molecular characteristics. Importantly, we were able to validate the stratification on independent, published datasets comprising over 1600 samples. Application of this stratification to four CRC cell line panels comprising 74 different cell lines, showed that the tumor subtypes are well represented in available CRC cell line panels. Pharmacological response data for targeted inhibitors of SRC, WNT, GSK3b, aurora kinase, PI3 kinase, and mTOR, showed significant differences in sensitivity across cell lines assigned to different subtypes. Importantly, some of these differences in sensitivity were in concordance with high expression of the targets or activation of the corresponding pathways in primary tumor samples of the same subtype.
The stratification presented here is robust, captures important features of CRC, and offers valuable insight into functional differences between CRC subtypes. By matching the identified subtypes to cell line panels that have been pharmacologically characterized, it opens up new possibilities for the development and application of targeted therapies for defined CRC patient sub-populations.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer, with an estimated 1.2 million cases and 608,700 deaths worldwide in 2008 . While the overall effects and interactions of environmental and lifestyle factors , and inherited and acquired genetic and epigenetic alterations [3–5] on CRC development are still incompletely understood, knowledge has improved in recent years.
The generally assumed model of CRC development implies a sequence of events leading from adenoma formation to carcinoma that is caused and accompanied by genetic and epigenetic events . Different molecular phenotypes have been used to define CRC subtypes [6, 7], for instance microsatellite instability (MSI) , epigenetic alterations, such as the methylation state of CpG islands , the location of the tumor in the colon/rectum, and mutations in genes, such as KRAS or BRAF. Key pathways that have been implicated in CRC include Wnt/ß-catenin, TGF-ß, MAPK, and PI3K signaling .
Intense research has been directed at the discovery of biomarkers that are predictive of disease progression or treatment response, albeit with limited success. For Stage II and III CRC, microsatellite instability was found to be predictive of better prognosis . Tumor staging, microsatellite instability, and loss of heterozygosity on Chromosome 18q have been used as prognostic factors for treatment with chemotherapy . Targeted monoclonal antibodies against VEGF-A and EGFR have been approved for therapy of advanced CRC. While resistance to EGFR antibodies is associated with mutations in the KRAS gene, an effect of BRAF mutations has not been proven conclusively . Furthermore, a large proportion of patients with wild-type KRAS do not respond to EGFR inhibition [12, 13]. On the other hand, inhibition of EGFR has recently been shown to have a synergistic effect on BRAF(V600E) inhibition . In order to better select patients that will respond to targeted treatment Dry and colleagues employed a pathway-based approach to derive a gene expression signature predictive of sensitivity to MEK inhibition by assessing activation of MEK and compensatory signaling from other RAS effectors . These efforts highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the molecular differences between CRC subtypes at the pathway level. Since clinical response data for targeted treatments are very limited, cell line models have become an increasingly important tool for research into the molecular basis of different cancers and linking molecular features to phenotypes such as drug response [16, 17].
A number of studies have been conducted in CRC, often in a supervised fashion, to develop gene expression signatures capable of identifying patient populations at high risk of recurrence [18–26]. In other cases, authors developed signatures of differentially expressed genes that allow distinguishing between different tumor stages [27, 28], or normal samples from tumors and metastases [29–31]. Recently, unsupervised analyses have been conducted with the goal of discovering CRC subtypes and explain functional differences [32–34]. First, Loboda et al. described two major CRC subtypes which were shown to correlate with a signature of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition . Later, Oh and colleagues applied hierarchical clustering to a CRC patient cohort and identified a gene signature that was associated with survival and response to chemotherapy . Perez-Villamil et al. found four CRC subtypes based on hierarchical clustering including a stromal subtype that was associated with poor survival .
In the present study, we set out to discover subtypes of primary CRC tumors with the aim to better characterize their functional differences on the pathway level. In contrast to previous studies, we employed a new iterative clustering method which allows us to detect expression patterns of varying strength. Instead of relying on highly variable probe sets, our method employs randomly selected probe set groups that cover a large portion of the expression data. As a result, our method is unbiased with respect to prior knowledge about certain genes or pathways. Furthermore, we provide the first alignment of pharmacologically characterized cell line panels to the discovered tumor subtypes. This enables us to assess how well primary tumor subtypes are covered by available cell line panels. To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first attempt at deriving hypotheses about response of individual subtypes to targeted treatment. First, we identified two subtypes showing strong association with an EMT phenotype and significant differences in survival times and microsatellite status. A subsequent second split of these two subtypes yielded five subtypes providing a more fine grained stratification. We demonstrate that these subtypes can be robustly reproduced on an independent set of over 1600 CRC tumor samples drawn from 15 previously published studies. More importantly, repeating the subtyping procedure on an independent dataset resulted in discovery of highly similar subtypes. By applying the subtyping to 74 different CRC cell lines, we show that all tumor subtypes are represented in the cell lines implying that the cell lines largely reflect the gene expression heterogeneity present in tumors. The integration of pharmacology data reveals that cell lines assigned to specific subtypes show exquisite sensitivity to targeted inhibitors. This provides evidence that the subtyping can be used for developing and selecting targeted treatments for specific subpopulations of CRC tumors.
Tumor and cell line datasets
CRC Tumor data
Characteristics of the tumors contained in set AZTS
30 – 39
40 – 49
50 – 59
60 – 69
70 – 79
80 – 89
Microsatellite instability status
CRC cell line data
We analyzed an available dataset consisting of gene expression profiles of 54 CRC cell lines (AZCL, Chresta CM et al., in preparation) as well as MSI status and mutation status for KRAS, BRAF, p53, PiK3CA, APC, and PTEN. We downloaded one cell line gene expression dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE8332 ) and data from the GSK Cancer Cell Line panel from caBIG at the National Cancer Institute (GSK, ). All three cell line panels were hybridized on the Affymetrix HGU133plus2 platform (see Additional file 1: Table S2). From ArrayExpress, we also downloaded a dataset containing the gene expression data for 34 large intestine cell lines hybridized on the Affymetrix HGU133A array (accession number E-MTAB-783 ). This dataset was generated in the Cancer Genome Project at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and will be referred to as the ‘Sanger set’.
We used R/Bioconductor software  for all processing of the microarray data prior to analysis. We normalized raw intensity values for each dataset independently using RMA as implemented in the affy package . We mean-centered expression values for individual probe sets for determining differential expression, hierarchical clustering, and plotting heatmaps. We utilized 1 – Pearson correlation as distance measure and complete linkage for hierarchically clustering expression data. To perform the combined analysis of the sets AZCL, GSK, and GSE8332, we normalized gene expression data for these datasets together but mean-centered each set separately to subtract any batch effect. Data for the cell lines C10, C125PM, C80, C99, CCK81, DLD1, HCA46, HRA19, LS513, NCI747, Vaco10MS, Vaco4A, Vaco4S, and Vaco5 in the AZCL set were treated as separate batch for mean-centering. We averaged expression values from cell line replicates within each panel before assigning them to subtypes. The mapping of probe sets to ENTREZ gene identifiers, gene symbols, and KEGG  pathways was done using the hgu133plus2.db package (version 2.7.1). Presence/absence calls for probe sets were calculated from RMA expression by applying the PANP package . We utilized the genefilter and the multtest packages to perform t-tests and Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction, respectively. We utilized Fisher’s exact test to detect significant differences of clinical annotation between subtypes. To increase statistical power, we combined different datasets with the same annotation for this analysis. Samples contained in both datasets GSE14333  and GSE17536  were removed from GSE14333 for the combined analyses. Survival data was available for a total of 578 tumor samples from the sets GSE17536 , GSE17537 , GSE14333 , GSE33113 , and GSE37892. Staging was available for 488 of these samples and shows that roughly 75% are classified in intermediate stages (Additional file 1: Table S3). The survival time analysis was performed using the survival package. We censored survival data at follow-up time of 120 months because the number of samples with longer follow-up was small.
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF)
INMF expression signatures
We detected 2154 probe sets (1351 genes) and 596 probe sets (408 genes) to be significantly up-regulated in Types 1 and 2, respectively (Additional file 2: Table S5 and Additional file 3: Table S6). Subsequently, Type 1 was split into three subtypes, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 that are defined by up-regulation of 439 probe sets (287 genes) for Subtype 1.1, 193 probe sets (141 genes) for Subtype 1.2, and 352 probe sets (219 genes) for Subtype 1.3 (Additional file 4: Table S7, Additional file 5: Table S8 and Additional file 6: Table S9). By further subdividing Type 2, we identified subtypes 2.1 and 2.2 with gene signatures consisting of 298 probe sets (200 genes) and 304 probe sets (202 genes), respectively (Additional file 7: Table S10 and Additional file 8: Table S11).
We assembled an EMT expression signature by combi-ning two published EMT signatures [32, 44], with genes from the SABiosciences EMT PCR array (SABiosciences, Frederick, MD). We annotated the genes as down- or up-regulated during EMT according to the source and removed genes with conflicting expression changes between different sets. In all cases, gene symbols were translated to probe set identifiers.
We performed a functional analysis of the subtype signatures using Signaling Pathway Enrichment using Experimental Datasets (SPEED) , and enrichment analyses on the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) , and KEGG  and Pathway Interaction Database (PID)  using BioMyn . Briefly, SPEED calculates enrichment of a gene list with signatures of downstream targets of selected pathways that were derived from pathway perturbation experiments. A significant overlap with a signature of a given pathway suggests that this pathway is activated. MSigDB contains gene sets divided into five collections: positional, curated, motif, computational, and GO; we calculated the overlap between the lists of genes that are differentially expressed between subtypes to the gene sets in all but the computational collection.
Comparison to published CRC subtype gene expression signatures
We extracted the expression signatures published by Loboda et al. and Oh et al. and applied them to the datasets GSE2109 (provided by the Expression Project for Oncology of the International Genomics Consortium), GSE14333, GSE17536, and GSE17537. To this end, we calculated for each sample the difference between mean expression of the mesenchymal signature and the epithelial signature defined by Loboda and colleagues. Also, we subtracted for each sample the mean expression of genes up-regulated in type A from the mean expression of genes up-regulated in type B as defined by Oh and colleagues. Additionally, we determined expression of genes contained in the stromal signature published by Perez-Villamil et al. .
For measuring drug response in the AZCL panel, cell lines were maintained in the logarithmic phase of growth. The anti-proliferative activity of compounds was measured as EC50 values at 72 h after drug dosing using the MTS tetrazolium dye method (Promega), proliferation assays were seeded at appropriate density to ensure logarithmic growth during the 72 h dosing period. For each compound, the mean -log10 (EC50) was computed across all cell lines and subtracted from -log10 (EC50) value for each cell line. The resulting value is positive if a cell line is more sensitive to treatment with this compound than the average over all lines and negative if it is more resistant. For the Sanger cell line panel, we downloaded IC50 values provided by the Cancer Genome Project group at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute from http://www.cancerrxgene.org/translation/Drug on June 6, 2012 . As for the AZCL set, we calculated the average -loge(IC50) for each compound across all cell lines and subtracted this value from -loge (IC50) for each cell line. The resulting value is positive if a cell line is more sensitive than average to treatment with a specific compound.
Five CRC subtypes are revealed by iterative clustering
For a pathway-based stratification of CRC tumor samples, we selected four pathways known to play a role in progression of CRC: MAPK signaling (KEGG: hsa04010), mTOR signaling (KEGG: hsa04150), ErbB signaling (KEGG: hsa04012), and colorectal cancer disease pathway (CRCdp, KEGG: hsa05210). Applying NMF independently to the gene sets annotated to these four pathways resulted in two sample clusters that were overlapping significantly for the ErbB, MAPK, and CRCdp pathways, indicating dominant gene expression differences involving these pathways.
Comparison of clinical and molecular characteristics of identified CRC subtypes
iNMF step 1
No. of tumor samples (AZTS)
No. of tumor samples (all datasets)
EMT expression signature
similar number of MSI and MSS CRC
enriched with MSS CRC
iNMF step 2
No. of tumor samples (AZTS)
No. of tumor samples (all datasets)
Average percent tumor foci area
Average percent tumor cells in foci
Average percent stromal cells in foci
Average percent inflammatory cells in foci
EMT expression signature
Tumor location colon/left/rectum/right
Microsatellite status MSI/MSS
enriched in late stage CRC
Gender enrichment Female/Male/Unknown
Ca-signaling and SRF-targeted
stress response and immune system-related
cell cycle and amino acid synthesis; genes on 13q13, 13q14, 13q32-34 and 20q11and 20q13
The CRC subtypes are present in independent datasets
In order to further establish the robustness of the iNMF method and the resulting stratification, we performed two rounds of validation. First, we hierarchically clustered several independent, publically available CRC expression datasets totaling 1643 samples (Additional file 1: Table S1) with the probe sets that were found to be differentially expressed between subtypes in our dataset. Additional file 9: Table S12 summarizes the results. Figure 3 depicts an overview of the expression signatures across the biggest datasets. It is clear that we were able to identify all subtypes in external datasets. More importantly, the expression of the signature genes is consistent across the different datasets.
Second, we applied iNMF to a large independent set GSE14333 (n = 290) and investigated the overlap of the resulting stratification with the one obtained from the first validation. We utilized the same groups of randomly selected probe sets and performed two iterations of iNMF. The first iteration identified very similar CRC Types 1 and 2 as before (Fisher exact p-value < 2.2*10-16), and 68% and 71% (p-values < 9.9*10-16) of the genes that were previously found to be up-regulated in CRC Types 1 and 2, respectively. The subtypes identified in the second iteration were also significantly similar (simulated Fisher exact p-value = 5*10-4). The overlaps of gene signatures were significant for subtypes of Type 1 and for Subtype 2.1 (p-values < 8.6*10-8) but not for 2.2.
CRC subtypes exhibit significantly different molecular and clinical characteristics
To gain insight into the correlation of the iNMF stratification with available clinical annotation, we made use of the annotation available for some datasets. Here, it has to be noted that clinical annotation varies substantially between different datasets. Table 2 summarizes the differences in clinical characteristics.
Survival analysis revealed that Type 1 had significantly worse disease free survival (p-value = 9*10-3) than Type 2 (Additional file 1: Figure S1). Using survival and chemotherapy annotation of samples in GSE14333, an univariate Cox regression model indicated that Stage C tumors assigned to Type 1 had a significantly improved disease free survival if treated with chemotherapy (p-value = 0.04) while Stage C tumors in Type 2 did not show such a benefit. Furthermore, there was also a significant difference in the distribution of MSI samples (p-values < 8.68*10-4) between Subtypes 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. The three subtypes of Type 1 also showed significant differences in terms of distribution of tumor location (p-value = 3.42*10-3). Of note, there was also a significant difference in distribution of male and female samples (p-value = 1.12*10-3) with Subtype 1.2 being the only subtype comprising more tumors of female than male patients.
Major CRC types exhibit a mesenchymal and an epithelial, cell cycle-activated profile
To further characterize the CRC subtypes at a functional level, we subjected the lists of subtype signature genes to a functional analysis using Signaling Pathway Enrichment using Experimental Datasets (SPEED) , the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) , and KEGG  and Pathway Interaction Database (PID)  using BioMyn . A detailed description of the results can be found in Additional file 1.
Subtypes show selective pathway activation
We also identified several pathways to be activated in the subtypes. Subtype 1.1 is characterized by pathways involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation (Figure 4B). Intriguingly, we also found a significant up-regulation of the calcium signaling KEGG pathway (p-value = 0.01) in 1.1. Subtype 1.2 shares activation of many pathways with Subtype 1.1 but strong activation of JAK-STAT is unique to 1.2 (Figure 4B). In Subtype 1.3, we identified genes annotated with several Gene Ontology (GO)  terms related to transport across membranes (p-values < 0.05) to be up-regulated (Table 2).
In Subtype 2.1, we identified several activated pathways related to inflammation, angiogenesis, and proliferation(Figure 4C). Intriguingly, we identified a number of genes to be up-regulated in Subtype 2.2 from two cytogenetic bands on the q-arm of Chromosome 20 (20q11 and 20q13, p-values < 5.68*10-5), and several bands on Chromosome 13q (13q13-14, 13q32-34, p-values < 3.96*10-2).
Comparison with published subtype signatures
CRC cell line panels represent all five subtypes
Last, we applied the subtype signatures to the Sanger dataset, comprising 34 cell lines that were profiled on a different expression platform (Additional file 1: Table S14). The stratification of cell lines overlapping between the Sanger set and the other cell line panels was highly similar (p-value = 8.6*10-6).
Differential response of CRC subtypes to targeted inhibitors
Aurora kinase A was one of the genes significantly up-regulated in Type 2. In accordance with this, cell lines assigned to Type 2 are significantly more sensitive to treatment with targeted aurora kinase inhibitors than cell lines of Type 1 (p-value = 1.9*10-3). Furthermore, cell lines assigned to Subtype 1.2 show a specifically high sensitivity to treatment with inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase, the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, and Wnt-signaling.
The analysis of the Sanger pharmacology data provides further validation for the high sensitivity of Subtype 1.2 cell lines to targeted inhibition of Src. As for the AZCL dataset, cell lines assigned to 1.2 exhibit the highest average sensitivity to these compounds.
In this work, we introduced iterative nonnegative matrix factorization based on randomly selected probe sets and applied it for stratifying CRC samples in a two-step process into two main types and subsequently into five subtypes. In contrast to previous studies, this iterative process enables us to detect a hierarchical relationship between subtypes based on expression differences of varying strength. Being based on randomly selected probe sets, iNMF has the advantage that it is unbiased with respect to knowledge about genes and pathways. The subtype signatures consisting of differentially expressed probe sets can be easily applied for hierarchically clustering independent CRC datasets in a two step process, thereby assigning the samples to their respective subtypes.
The presented CRC stratification was validated by clustering independent CRC expression datasets using the identified signatures and by applying the iNMF algorithm to an independent dataset, which resulted in highly similar subtypings. These results prove that our method and stratification are robust and transferable to other datasets, and that the lists of differentially expressed probe sets are applicable for the stratification of independent expression datasets and robust against confounding factors typically present in independent datasets.
The functional analyses of differentially expressed probe sets provided insight into differences in the activation of key signaling pathways in distinct types and subtypes and interesting start points for further investigations. The first iteration revealed a mesenchymal (Type 1) and a highly proliferative, epithelial (Type 2) type. This difference between epithelial and mesenchymal types is not correlated to the amount of infiltration by stromal cells as tumor sampels in all subtypes show similar percent stromal cells (Table 2). Further stratifying the mesenchymal type identified a subtype with signs of activation of MAPK, TGFβ, and calcium signaling (Subtype 1.1), a subtype with activation of immune system-related pathways (Subtype 1.2), and one with high expression of transporter genes (Subtype 1.3). The subdivision of the epithelial type revealed a subtype showing activation of immune system-related pathways (Subtype 2.1), and a subtype with high expression of genes on chromosomes 13q and 20q (Subtype 2.2).
Many of the pathways identified here as activated in specific subtypes were also shown to be targeted by recurrent alterations in a recent analysis by The Cancer Genome Atlas Network . In this analysis, most samples were found to harbor alterations leading to an activation of WNT signaling which is in agreement with the finding that WNT is the only pathway analyzed that seems to be activated in both Types 1 and 2. Furthermore, receptor tyrosine kinase-RAS signaling was affected in a substantial number of tumors, and we identified classical MAPK signaling to be activated in Type 1 and specifically in Subtype 1.1. Recently, Seshagiri and colleagues analyzed next-generation sequencing data obtained from 70 primary human colon tumors  and found frequent mutations in 356 candidate CRC genes previously identified in screens in mouse models of CRC [52, 53]. More than 8% of these genes are also contained in the signatures associated with the iNMF subtypes presented here. Clusterin, for example, is highly expressed in Type 1 and known to regulate NF-κB activity  and inhibit apoptosis . Type 2 tumors, on the other hand, show high expression of dachshund homolog 1 which inhibits TGFβ signaling through binding to SMAD4  and possibly contributes to the difference in TGFβ signaling between Type 1 and 2. This provides further evidence that the iNMF signatures and the differences in pathway activation between subtypes represent CRC intrinsic features and contribute to their better understanding.
Subtype 1.2 is highly enriched for tumors showing MSI, which have been shown to have substantial amounts of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes . Although the average percent of infiltrating inflammatory cells is comparable across subtypes (Table 2), Subtype 1.2 indeed shows the highest average and this might have influenced the gene expression signatures. Unexpectedly, Subtype 1.2 is the only subtype that comprises more female than male tumors. Previously, it has been reported that there are differences regarding the location distribution of colorectal tumors between the genders, e.g. that in women right-sided CRC is more common  and that pathological and molecular features of the tumors vary between locations . These variations might cause changes in gene expression which are detected by iNMF.
Aligning cell lines with tumor samples to enhance their utility as pre-clinical predictive models has proved challenging for many tumor types. We observed that the four cell line panels investigated here generally provided a good coverage of the space of primary tumor samples, in contrast to a study by Auman and McLeod . Although the expression of the signature genes is less consistent in cell lines, replicates from different panels were stratified in a highly consistent fashion. Furthermore, specific biological characteristics agreed between tumor samples and cell lines assigned to the same subtype. The observation that expression patterns for the pathways investigated are not well conserved between cell lines and tumor samples might indicate that canonical pathways do not fully reflect mechanistic complexity. Furthermore, the non-natural culture conditions of cell lines might have an effect on gene expression which might change the activation of pathways or the respective expression signal that can be detected. However, the successful alignment of CRC cell lines to the newly identified disease subtypes using the techniques described here reveals that the gene expression profiles which define subtypes remain significantly intact despite extended growth in vitro.
Analysis of two cell line datasets with treatment response data indicated that subtypes respond differently to targeted compounds. Type 2 cell lines are more sensitive to treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors. This is in agreement with the high expression of aurora kinase A in Type 2 tumor samples and suggests that genes included in the signatures might be good candidates for targeted treatment of specific CRC subpopulations. Additionally, pharmacological data for two independent cell line panels suggests that Subtype 1.2 cell lines are most sensitive to inhibition of Src. These are interesting hypotheses for the treatment of the different CRC subtypes that warrant further investigation.
The comparison to published signatures showed that the five iNMF subtypes are neither detected by any of the existing signatures alone nor by their combination. For example, most tumors in Subtype 1.2 and many tumors in 2.1 have a high Oh B signature but differ in EMT status. Interestingly, Subtype 1.2 shows a significantly higher sensitivity than Subtype 2.1 to inhibition of proteins on the PI3K pathway, GSK3β, PI3K, and TOR. This suggests that the subtyping presented here allows a more fine grained subdivision of CRC samples which is likely to have greater utility at linking molecular features to pharmacology.
In summary, we have used tumor gene expression profiles to identify new CRC subtypes and have defined their main pathway differences. Using a large number of independent datasets, we showed that the stratification is stable across different datasets, regardless of which dataset is employed to derive the gene sets with which to perform the stratification. iNMF is robust with respect to the starting dataset and can be applied to identify inherent disease subtypes. Furthermore, we have presented evidence that CRC cell line panels represent the different disease subtypes, and that the integration of pharmacology data offers new opportunities for develo-ping improved CRC therapies targeted at the new CRC molecular subtypes and generating clinically tractable hypotheses for response prediction.
Tim French and Lodewyk FA Wessels shared last authorship.
We would like to thank Walter Bodmer for providing CRC cell line samples used in this study. This study was financially supported by AstraZeneca.
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