Dixon JB. The effect of obesity on health outcomes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;316(2):104–8.
Hill JO, Wyatt HR, Peters JC. Energy balance and obesity. Circulation. 2012;126(1):126–32.
Herrera BM, Keildson S, Lindgren CM. Genetics and epigenetics of obesity. Maturitas. 2011;69(1):41–9.
Hruby AHF. The epidemiology of obesity: a big picture. Pharmacoeconomics. 2016;2016(33):673–89.
Obesity and overweight: World Health Organization; 2020 [Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight.
Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2020 [Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/index.html.
Walley AJ, Blakemore A, Froguel P. Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15 Spec No 2:R124-30.
Chapman IM. Obesity in old age. Front Horm Res. 2008;36:97–106.
Stryjecki C, Alyass A, Meyre D. Ethnic and population differences in the genetic predisposition to human obesity. Obes Rev. 2017;19(1):62–80.
O’Rahilly S, Farooqi IS. Human obesity: a heritable neurobehavioral disorder that is highly sensitive to environmental conditions. Diabetes. 2008;57(11):2905–10.
Willer CJ, Speliotes EK, Loos RJ, Li S, Lindgren CM, Heid IM, et al. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation. Nat Genet. 2009;41(1):25–34.
Larder R, Sim MFM, Gulati P, Antrobus R, Tung YCL, Rimmington D, et al. Obesity-associated gene TMEM18 has a role in the central control of appetite and body weight regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2017;114(35):9421–6.
Speliotes EK, Willer CJ, Berndt SI, Monda KL, Thorleifsson G, Jackson AU, et al. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. Nat Genet. 2010;42(11):937–48.
Thorleifsson G, Walters GB, Gudbjartsson DF, Steinthorsdottir V, Sulem P, Helgadottir A, et al. Genome-wide association yields new sequence variants at seven loci that associate with measures of obesity. Nat Genet. 2009;41(1):18–24.
Gervasini G, Gamero-Villarroel C. Discussing the putative role of obesity-associated genes in the etiopathogenesis of eating disorders. Pharmacogenomics. 2015;16(11):1287–305.
Sobalska-Kwapis M, Smolarz B, Slomka M, Szaflik T, Kepka E, Kulig B, et al. New variants near RHOJ and C2, HLA-DRA region and susceptibility to endometriosis in the Polish population-The genome-wide association study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017;217:106–12.
Sobalska-Kwapis M, Suchanecka A, Slomka M, Siewierska-Gorska A, Kepka E, Strapagiel D. Genetic association of FTO/IRX region with obesity and overweight in the Polish population. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(6):e0180295.
Dobrowolska S, Michalska-Madej J, Słomka M, Sobalska-Kwapis M, Strapagiel D. Biobank Łódź ® -population based biobank at the University of Łódź, Poland. Eur J Transl Clin Med. 2019;2(1):85–95.
Body mass index—BMI. World Health Organization; 2020.
Peterson JaW, V and Losos, M and Tugwell, PJOOHRI and others. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. Ottawa: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. 2011.
Review Manager Web (RevMan Web). the Cochrane Collaboration; 2019.
Albuquerque D, Nobrega C, Rodriguez-Lopez R, Manco L. Association study of common polymorphisms in MSRA, TFAP2B, MC4R, NRXN3, PPARGC1A, TMEM18, SEC16B, HOXB5 and OLFM4 genes with obesity-related traits among Portuguese children. J Hum Genet 59(6):307–13.
Almen MS, Jacobsson JA, Shaik JH, Olszewski PK, Cedernaes J, Alsio J, et al. The obesity gene, TMEM18, is of ancient origin, found in majority of neuronal cells in all major brain regions and associated with obesity in severely obese children. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:58.
Bradfield JP, Taal HR, Timpson NJ, Scherag A, Lecoeur C, Warrington NM, et al. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci. Nat Genet 44(5):526–31.
Cheung CY, Tso AW, Cheung BM, Xu A, Ong KL, Fong CH, et al. Obesity susceptibility genetic variants identified from recent genome-wide association studies: implications in a chinese population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 95(3):1395–403.
den Hoed M, Ekelund U, Brage S, Grontved A, Zhao JH, Sharp SJ, et al. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and related traits in childhood and adolescence: influence of loci identified by genome-wide association studies. Diabetes. 2010;59(11):2980–8.
Dusatkova L, Zamrazilova H, Sedlackova B, Vcelak J, Hlavaty P, Aldhoon Hainerova I, et al. Association of obesity susceptibility gene variants with metabolic syndrome and related traits in 1,443 Czech adolescents. Folia Biol (Praha). 59(3):123–33.
Garcia-Solis P, Reyes-Bastidas M, Flores K, Garcia OP, Rosado JL, Mendez-Villa L, et al. Fat mass obesity-associated (FTO) (rs9939609) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) (rs17782313) SNP are positively associated with obesity and blood pressure in Mexican school-aged children. Br J Nutr. 2016:1–7.
Hong J, Shi J, Qi L, Cui B, Gu W, Zhang Y, et al. Genetic susceptibility, birth weight and obesity risk in young Chinese. Int J Obes (Lond). 37(5):673–7.
Hotta K, Nakamura M, Nakamura T, Matsuo T, Nakata Y, Kamohara S, et al. Association between obesity and polymorphisms in SEC16B, TMEM18, GNPDA2, BDNF, FAIM2 and MC4R in a Japanese population. J Hum Genet. 2009;54(12):727–31.
Leon-Mimila P, Villamil-Ramirez H, Villalobos-Comparan M, Villarreal-Molina T, Romero-Hidalgo S, Lopez-Contreras B, et al. Contribution of common genetic variants to obesity and obesity-related traits in mexican children and adults. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(8):e70640.
Liu CT, Young KL, Brody JA, Olden M, Wojczynski MK, Heard-Costa N, et al. Sequence variation in TMEM18 in association with body mass index: Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium Targeted Sequencing Study. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2014;7(3):344–9.
Lv D, Zhang DD, Wang H, Zhang Y, Liang L, Fu JF, et al. Genetic variations in SEC16B, MC4R, MAP2K5 and KCTD15 were associated with childhood obesity and interacted with dietary behaviors in Chinese school-age population. Gene. 2015;560(2):149–55.
Erdogan MO, Avci K, Yildiz SH, Terzi ESA, Soylemez Z, Varol N, et al. Effect of gene polymorphisms in transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18) and neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1) on body mass index in obese subjects. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip. 2018;32(6):1567–74.
Rask-Andersen M, Jacobsson JA, Moschonis G, Chavan RA, Sikder MA, Allzen E, et al. Association of TMEM18 variants with BMI and waist circumference in children and correlation of mRNA expression in the PFC with body weight in rats. Eur J Hum Genet. 2012;20(2):192–7.
Rask-Andersen M, Sallman Almen M, Jacobsson JA, Ameur A, Moschonis G, Dedoussis G, et al. Determination of obesity associated gene variants related to TMEM18 through ultra-deep targeted re-sequencing in a case-control cohort for pediatric obesity. Genet Res (Camb). 2015;97:e16.
Rouskas K, Kouvatsi A, Paletas K, Papazoglou D, Tsapas A, Lobbens S, et al. Common variants in FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, PRL, AIF1, and PCSK1 show evidence of association with adult obesity in the Greek population. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20(2):389–95.
Sandholt CH, Vestmar MA, Bille DS, Borglykke A, Almind K, Hansen L, et al. Studies of metabolic phenotypic correlates of 15 obesity associated gene variants. PLoS ONE. 6(9):e23531.
Srivastava A, Mittal B, Prakash J, Srivastava P, Srivastava N. A multianalytical approach to evaluate the association of 55 SNPs in 28 genes with obesity risk in North Indian adults. Am J Hum Biol. 2017;29(2).
Thomsen M, Dahl M, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. beta2-adrenergic receptor Thr164Ile polymorphism, obesity, and diabetes: comparison with FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18 polymorphisms in more than 64,000 individuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(6):E1074–9.
Wang HJ, Hinney A, Song JY, Scherag A, Meng XR, Grallert H, et al. Association of common variants identified by recent genome-wide association studies with obesity in Chinese children: a case-control study. BMC Med Genet.17:7.
Zhao J, Bradfield JP, Zhang H, Sleiman PM, Kim CE, Glessner JT, et al. Role of BMI-associated loci identified in GWAS meta-analyses in the context of common childhood obesity in European Americans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;19(12):2436–9.
Zhu J, Loos RJ, Lu L, Zong G, Gan W, Ye X, et al. Associations of genetic risk score with obesity and related traits and the modifying effect of physical activity in a Chinese Han population. PLoS ONE 9(3):e91442.
Scherag A, Dina C, Hinney A, Vatin V, Scherag S, Vogel CI, et al. Two new Loci for body-weight regulation identified in a joint analysis of genome-wide association studies for early-onset extreme obesity in French and german study groups. PLoS Genet. 2010;6(4):e1000916.
Holzapfel C, Grallert H, Huth C, Wahl S, Fischer B, Doring A, et al. Genes and lifestyle factors in obesity: results from 12,462 subjects from MONICA/KORA. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34(10):1538–45.
Kolackov K, Laczmanski L, Lwow F, Ramsey D, Zdrojowy-Welna A, Tupikowska M, et al. The frequencies of haplotypes of FTO gene variants and their association with the distribution of body fat in non-obese poles. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2016;25(1):33–42.
Rosset I, Strapagiel D, Sitek A, Majewska M, Ostrowska-Nawarycz L, Żądzińska E. Association of FTO and TMEM18 polymorphisms with overweight and obesity in the population of Polish children. Anthropol Rev. 2016;79(1):17–33.
Mao L, Fang Y, Campbell M, Southerland WM. Population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs. BMC Genom. 2017;18(1):861.
Graff M, North KE, Richardson AS, Young KL, Mazul AL, Highland HM, et al. BMI loci and longitudinal BMI from adolescence to young adulthood in an ethnically diverse cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). 2017;41(5):759–68.
Isong IA, Rao SR, Bind MA, Avendano M, Kawachi I, Richmond TK. Racial and ethnic disparities in early childhood obesity. Pediatrics. 2018;141(1).
Graff M, Ngwa JS, Workalemahu T, Homuth G, Schipf S, Teumer A, et al. Genome-wide analysis of BMI in adolescents and young adults reveals additional insight into the effects of genetic loci over the life course. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22(17):3597–607.
Hertel JK, Johansson S, Sonestedt E, Jonsson A, Lie RT, Platou CG, et al. FTO, type 2 diabetes, and weight gain throughout adult life: a meta-analysis of 41,504 subjects from the Scandinavian HUNT, MDC, and MPP studies. Diabetes. 2011;60(5):1637–44.
Song M, Zheng Y, Qi L, Hu FB, Chan AT, Giovannucci EL. Longitudinal analysis of genetic susceptibility and BMI throughout adult life. Diabetes. 2018;67(2):248–55.
Winkler TW, Justice AE, Graff M, Barata L, Feitosa MF, Chu S, et al. The influence of age and sex on genetic associations with adult body size and shape: a large-scale genome-wide interaction study. PLoS Genet. 2015;11(10):e1005378.
Bouchard C. Current understanding of the etiology of obesity: genetic and nongenetic factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(6 Suppl):1561S-S1565.
French SA, Story M, Jeffery RW. Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annu Rev Public Health. 2001;22:309–35.
Fulford AJ, Ong KK, Elks CE, Prentice AM, Hennig BJ. Progressive influence of body mass index-associated genetic markers in rural Gambians. J Med Genet. 2015;52(6):375–80.
Nakaoka H, Inoue I. Meta-analysis of genetic association studies: methodologies, between-study heterogeneity and winner’s curse. J Hum Genet. 2009;54(11):615–23.