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  1. Pathway discovery from gene expression data can provide important insight into the relationship between signaling networks and cancer biology. Oncogenic signaling pathways are commonly inferred by comparison w...

    Authors: Sandeep Sanga, Bradley M Broom, Vittorio Cristini and Mary E Edgerton
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:59
  2. In addition to their well-documented ocular therapeutic effects, glucocorticoids (GCs) can cause sight-threatening side-effects including ocular hypertension presumably via morphological and biochemical change...

    Authors: Alissar Nehmé, Edward K Lobenhofer, W Daniel Stamer and Jeffrey L Edelman
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:58
  3. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of approximately 22 nucleotide long, widely expressed RNA molecules that play important regulatory roles in eukaryotes. To investigate miRNA function, it is essential that method...

    Authors: Julie M Cunningham, Ann L Oberg, Pedro M Borralho, Betsy T Kren, Amy J French, Liang Wang, Brian M Bot, Bruce W Morlan, Kevin AT Silverstein, Rod Staggs, Yan Zeng, Anne-Francoise Lamblin, Christopher A Hilker, Jian-Bing Fan, Clifford J Steer and Stephen N Thibodeau
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:57
  4. Tobacco smoking is associated with lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. However, little is known about the global molecular changes that precede the appearance of clinically detectable symptoms. In this...

    Authors: Sabina Halappanavar, Marsha Russell, Martin R Stampfli, Andrew Williams and Carole L Yauk
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:56
  5. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamines including neurotransmitters, is highly expressed in basal cells of the normal human prostatic epithelium and in poorly differentiate...

    Authors: Hongjuan Zhao, Vincent Flamand and Donna M Peehl
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:55
  6. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional control of gene expression of a wide number of genes, including those involved in glucose homeostasis. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is ...

    Authors: Blanca M Herrera, Helen E Lockstone, Jennifer M Taylor, Quin F Wills, Pamela J Kaisaki, Amy Barrett, Carme Camps, Christina Fernandez, Jiannis Ragoussis, Dominique Gauguier, Mark I McCarthy and Cecilia M Lindgren
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:54
  7. One of the most striking features of the childhood malignancy neuroblastoma (NB) is its clinical heterogeneity. Although there is a great need for better clinical and biological markers to distinguish between ...

    Authors: Kaisa Thorell, Annika Bergman, Helena Carén, Staffan Nilsson, Per Kogner, Tommy Martinsson and Frida Abel
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:53
  8. Microarray diagnostics of tumour samples is based on measurement of prognostic and/or predictive gene expression profiles. Typically, diagnostic profiles have been developed using bulk tumour samples with a su...

    Authors: Paul Roepman, Arenda Schuurman, Leonie JMJ Delahaye, Anke T Witteveen, Arno N Floore and Annuska M Glas
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:52
  9. The pathogenesis of inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains unclear. Transgenic mice with constitutive HCV core over-expression display steatosis only. While the reasons ...

    Authors: Ming-Ling Chang, Chau-Ting Yeh, Deng-Yn Lin, Yu-Pin Ho, Chen-Ming Hsu and D Montgomery Bissell
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:51
  10. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of KS, a neoplasm characterized by proliferating spindle cells, extensive neoangiogenesis and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate. I...

    Authors: Vasu Punj, Hittu Matta, Sandra Schamus and Preet M Chaudhary
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:50
  11. Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified ...

    Authors: Boryana S Stamova, Michelle Apperson, Wynn L Walker, Yingfang Tian, Huichun Xu, Peter Adamczy, Xinhua Zhan, Da-Zhi Liu, Bradley P Ander, Isaac H Liao, Jeffrey P Gregg, Renee J Turner, Glen Jickling, Lisa Lit and Frank R Sharp
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:49
  12. The genetic mechanisms of prostate tumorigenesis remain poorly understood, but with the advent of gene expression array capabilities, we can now produce a large amount of data that can be used to explore the m...

    Authors: Ivan P Gorlov, Jinyoung Byun, Olga Y Gorlova, Ana M Aparicio, Eleni Efstathiou and Christopher J Logothetis
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:48
  13. The ability to predict the spatial frequency of relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) would enable physicians to decide when to intervene more aggressively and to plan clinical trials more accurately.

    Authors: Michael Gurevich, Tamir Tuller, Udi Rubinstein, Rotem Or-Bach and Anat Achiron
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:46
  14. Cerebral palsy (CP) is an upper motor neuron disease that results in a progressive movement disorder. Secondary to the neurological insult, muscles from CP patients often become spastic. Spastic muscle is char...

    Authors: Lucas R Smith, Eva Pontén, Yvette Hedström, Samuel R Ward, Henry G Chambers, Shankar Subramaniam and Richard L Lieber
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:44
  15. Genomic copy number alteration (CNA) that are recurrent across multiple samples often harbor critical genes that can drive either the initiation or the progression of cancer disease. Up to now, most researcher...

    Authors: Philippe Broët, Patrick Tan, Marco Alifano, Sophie Camilleri-Broët and Sylvia Richardson
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:43
  16. Meningiomas may occur either as familial tumors in two distinct disorders, familial multiple meningioma and neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), or sporadically, as either single or multiple tumors in individuals with n...

    Authors: Yiping Shen, Fabio Nunes, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Marianne James, Gayatry Mohapatra, Scott Plotkin, Rebecca A Betensky, David A Engler, Jennifer Roy, Vijaya Ramesh and James F Gusella
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:42
  17. Hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) alters gene expression regulation in various organs and contributes to long term vascular and renal complications. We aimed to generate novel renal genome-wide gene tra...

    Authors: Yaomin Hu, Pamela J Kaisaki, Karène Argoud, Steven P Wilder, Karin J Wallace, Peng Y Woon, Christine Blancher, Lise Tarnow, Per-Henrik Groop, Samy Hadjadj, Michel Marre, Hans-Henrik Parving, Martin Farrall, Roger D Cox, Mark Lathrop, Nathalie Vionnet…
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:41
  18. We have previously shown that the Gene expression Grade Index (GGI) was able to identify two subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors that were associated with statistically distinct clinical outcome...

    Authors: Christine Desmedt, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Patrick Neven, Robert Paridaens, Marie-Rose Christiaens, Ann Smeets, Françoise Lallemand, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Giuseppe Viale, Richard D Gelber, Martine Piccart and Christos Sotiriou
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:40
  19. Gastric cancers frequently show chromosomal alterations which can cause activation of oncogenes, and/or inactivation of tumour suppressor genes. In gastric cancer several chromosomal regions are described to b...

    Authors: Tineke E Buffart, Marianne Tijssen, Jamila El-Bchiri, Alex Duval, Mark A van de Wiel, Bauke Ylstra, Gerrit A Meijer and Beatriz Carvalho
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:39
  20. At present, there are no clinically reliable disease markers for chronic fatigue syndrome. DNA chip microarray technology provides a method for examining the differential expression of mRNA from a large number...

    Authors: John W Gow, Suzanne Hagan, Pawel Herzyk, Celia Cannon, Peter O Behan and Abhijit Chaudhuri
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:38
  21. Within estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (ER+ BC), the expression levels of proliferation-related genes can define two clinically distinct molecular subtypes. When treated with adjuvant tamoxifen, those...

    Authors: Sherene Loi, Christos Sotiriou, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Francoise Lallemand, Nelly M Conus, Martine J Piccart, Terence P Speed and Grant A McArthur
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:37
  22. The presence of MLL rearrangements in acute leukemia results in a complex number of biological modifications that still remain largely unexplained. Armstrong et al. proposed MLL rearrangement positive ALL as a di...

    Authors: Andrea Zangrando, Marta Campo Dell'Orto, Geertruy te Kronnie and Giuseppe Basso
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:36
  23. MiRNAs play important roles in cellular control and in various disease states such as cancers, where they may serve as markers or possibly even therapeutics. Identifying the whole repertoire of miRNAs and unde...

    Authors: Sanne Nygaard, Anders Jacobsen, Morten Lindow, Jens Eriksen, Eva Balslev, Henrik Flyger, Niels Tolstrup, Søren Møller, Anders Krogh and Thomas Litman
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:35
  24. Cisplatin and carboplatin are the primary first-line therapies for the treatment of ovarian cancer. However, resistance to these platinum-based drugs occurs in the large majority of initially responsive tumors...

    Authors: Meng Li, Curt Balch, John S Montgomery, Mikyoung Jeong, Jae Hoon Chung, Pearlly Yan, Tim HM Huang, Sun Kim and Kenneth P Nephew
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:34
  25. The use of gene expression in venous blood either as a pharmacodynamic marker in clinical trials of drugs or as a diagnostic test requires knowledge of the variability in expression over time in healthy volunt...

    Authors: Chris Karlovich, Guillemette Duchateau-Nguyen, Andrea Johnson, Patricia McLoughlin, Mercidita Navarro, Carole Fleurbaey, Lori Steiner, Michel Tessier, Tracy Nguyen, Monika Wilhelm-Seiler and John P Caulfield
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:33
  26. It is well known that a persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is causally involved in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix (CxSCCs) and a subset of SCCs ...

    Authors: Saskia M Wilting, Serge J Smeets, Peter JF Snijders, Wessel N van Wieringen, Mark A van de Wiel, Gerrit A Meijer, Bauke Ylstra, C René Leemans, Chris JLM Meijer, Ruud H Brakenhoff, Boudewijn JM Braakhuis and Renske DM Steenbergen
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:32
  27. Large-scale screening methods are widely used to reveal cancer-specific DNA methylation markers. We previously identified non-satellite 3.3-kb repeats associated with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FS...

    Authors: Alexey N Katargin, Larissa S Pavlova, Fjodor L Kisseljov and Natalia P Kisseljova
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:30
  28. In order to eliminate health disparities in the United States, more efforts are needed to address the breadth of social issues directly contributing to the healthy divide observed across racial and ethnic grou...

    Authors: Edward Ramos and Charles Rotimi
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:29
  29. Many critical maturational processes take place in the human brain during postnatal development. In particular, the prefrontal cortex does not reach maturation until late adolescence and this stage is associat...

    Authors: Laura W Harris, Helen E Lockstone, Phillipp Khaitovich, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Maree J Webster and Sabine Bahn
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:28
  30. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), a large number of deleted genomic regions have been identified in human cancers. However, subsequent efforts to identify target genes selected for inactiva...

    Authors: Aslaug Aamodt Muggerud, Henrik Edgren, Maija Wolf, Kristine Kleivi, Emelyne Dejeux, Jörg Tost, Therese Sørlie and Olli Kallioniemi
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:26
  31. Paragangliomas of the head and neck are highly vascular and usually clinically benign tumors arising in the paraganglia of the autonomic nervous system. A significant number of cases (10–50%) are proven to be ...

    Authors: Erik F Hensen, Jelle J Goeman, Jan Oosting, Andel GL Van der Mey, Pancras CW Hogendoorn, Cor WRJ Cremers, Peter Devilee and Cees J Cornelisse
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:25
  32. Astrocyte activation is a characteristic response to injury in the central nervous system, and can be either neurotoxic or neuroprotective, while the regulation of both roles remains elusive.

    Authors: Tatiana Nikolskaya, Yuri Nikolsky, Tatiana Serebryiskaya, Svetlana Zvereva, Eugene Sviridov, Zoltan Dezso, Eugene Rahkmatulin, Richard J Brennan, Nick Yankovsky, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya, Olga Agapova, M Rosario Hernandez and Valery I Shestopalov
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:24
  33. Gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples represents a valuable approach for advancing oncology diagnostics and enhancing retrospective clinical studies; however, at present...

    Authors: Grazyna Fedorowicz, Steve Guerrero, Thomas D Wu and Zora Modrusan
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:23
  34. Microorganisms have been associated with many types of human diseases; however, a significant number of clinically important microbial pathogens remain to be discovered.

    Authors: Christopher G Duncan, Rebecca J Leary, Jimmy Cheng-Ho Lin, Jordan Cummins, Chunhui Di, Carl F Schaefer, Tian-Li Wang, Gregory J Riggins, Jennifer Edwards, Darell Bigner, Levy Kopelovich, Bert Vogelstein, Kenneth W Kinzler, Victor E Velculescu and Hai Yan
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:22
  35. DNA copy number alterations are frequently observed in ovarian cancer, but it remains a challenge to identify the most relevant alterations and the specific causal genes in those regions.

    Authors: Peter M Haverty, Lawrence S Hon, Joshua S Kaminker, John Chant and Zemin Zhang
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:21
  36. Apoptosis is a critical biological phenomenon, executed under the guidance of the Apoptotic Machinery (AM), which allows the physiologic elimination of terminally differentiated, senescent or diseased cells. B...

    Authors: Cinzia Di Pietro, Marco Ragusa, Davide Barbagallo, Laura R Duro, Maria R Guglielmino, Alessandra Majorana, Rosario Angelica, Marina Scalia, Luisa Statello, Loredana Salito, Luisa Tomasello, Salvo Pernagallo, Salvo Valenti, Vito D'Agostino, Patrizio Triberio, Igor Tandurella…
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:20
  37. Tamoxifen (TAM) is a well characterized breast cancer drug and selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which also has been associated with a small increase in risk for uterine cancers. TAM's partial agoni...

    Authors: Joshua C Kwekel, Agnes L Forgacs, Lyle D Burgoon, Kurt J Williams and Timothy R Zacharewski
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:19
  38. Subcortical white matter hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, referred to as leukoaraiosis, is associated with increased risk of stroke and dementia. Hypertension may contribute to ...

    Authors: Jennifer A Smith, Stephen T Turner, Yan V Sun, Myriam Fornage, Reagan J Kelly, Thomas H Mosley, Clifford R Jack, Iftikhar J Kullo and Sharon LR Kardia
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:16
  39. Low levels of oxygen in tissues, seen in situations such as chronic lung disease, necrotic tumors, and high altitude exposures, initiate a signaling pathway that results in active transcription of genes posses...

    Authors: Jennifer S Guimbellot, Stephen W Erickson, Tapan Mehta, Hui Wen, Grier P Page, Eric J Sorscher and Jeong S Hong
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:15
  40. Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease characterized by fibrovascular invasion of the cornea and is sight-threatening due to astigmatism, tear film disturbance, or occlusion of the visual axis. However, ...

    Authors: Louis Tong, Jaime Chew, Henry Yang, Leonard PK Ang, Donald TH Tan and Roger W Beuerman
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:14
  41. The methods used for sample selection and processing can have a strong influence on the expression values obtained through microarray profiling. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) provides higher specificity ...

    Authors: Eric W Klee, Sibel Erdogan, Lori Tillmans, Farhad Kosari, Zhifu Sun, Dennis A Wigle, Ping Yang, Marie C Aubry and George Vasmatzis
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:13
  42. Gulf War Illness (GWI) remains a serious health consequence for at least 11,000 veterans of the first Gulf War in the early 1990s. Our understanding of the health consequences that resulted remains inadequate,...

    Authors: Toni Whistler, Mary Ann Fletcher, William Lonergan, Xiao-R Zeng, Jin-Mann Lin, Arthur LaPerriere, Suzanne D Vernon and Nancy G Klimas
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:12
  43. Aberrant DNA methylation of CpG islands of cancer-related genes is among the earliest and most frequent alterations in cancerogenesis and might be of value for either diagnosing cancer or evaluating recurrent ...

    Authors: Ada Piepoli, Rosa Cotugno, Giuseppe Merla, Annamaria Gentile, Bartolomeo Augello, Michele Quitadamo, Antonio Merla, Anna Panza, Massimo Carella, Rosalia Maglietta, Annarita D'Addabbo, Nicola Ancona, Saverio Fusilli, Francesco Perri and Angelo Andriulli
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:11
  44. Novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines recently tested in humans have been designed to boost immunity induced by the current vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Because BCG vaccination is used e...

    Authors: Helen A Fletcher, Alana Keyser, Mark Bowmaker, Peter C Sayles, Gilla Kaplan, Greg Hussey, Adrian VS Hill and Willem A Hanekom
    Citation: BMC Medical Genomics 2009 2:10

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